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Disease & Drug Info

Glossary of Terms

vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor

listen (VAS-kyoo-ler EN-doh-THEE-lee-ul grothe FAK-ter reh-SEP-ter TY-ruh-seen KY-nays in-HIH-bih-ter) A substance that blocks an enzyme needed to form blood vessels. Also called VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor.

vascular endothelial growth factor trap

listen (VAS-kyoo-ler EN-doh-THEE-lee-ul grothe FAK-ter ...) A drug used with other drugs to treat colorectal cancer that has spread to other parts of the body and has not gotten better with chemotherapy. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Vascular endothelial growth factor trap blocks the action of a protein called vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It is a type of antiangiogenesis agent. Also called VEGF Trap, Zaltrap, and ziv-aflibercept.

vascular endothelial growth factor-antisense oligonucleotide

listen (VAS-kyoo-ler EN-doh-THEE-lee-ul grothe FAK-ter-AN-tee-sents AH-lih-goh-NOO-klee-oh-tide) A substance that has been studied in the treatment of cancer. It binds to the RNA for a protein called vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that stimulates the growth of new blood vessels. Vascular endothelial growth factor-antisense oligonucleotide blocks the cells ability to make VEGF, which may kill tumors that need new blood vessels to grow. It is a type of antisense oligonucleotide and a type of gene expression inhibitor. Also called VEGF-AS.

vascularized autologous bone graft

listen (VAS-kyoo-luh-RIZED aw-TAH-luh-gus ...) Bone tissue that contains blood vessels, taken from one part of the body and used to replace diseased or injured bone in another part of the body of the same person.

vasectomy

listen (va-SEK-toh-mee) An operation to cut or tie off the two tubes that carry sperm out of the testicles.

vasoactive

listen (VAY-zoh-AK-tiv) Describes something that causes the blood vessels to constrict (get narrower) or dilate (get wider).

vasoactive intestinal peptide

listen (VAY-zoh-AK-tiv in-TES-tih-nul PEP-tide) A hormone found in the pancreas, intestine, and central nervous system. It has many actions in the body, such as helping to control the secretion of water, salts, enzymes, and gastric acid during digestion. It also causes smooth muscles in the digestive tract, the heart, and the blood vessels to relax. It also has effects on the immune system and the central nervous system. Certain tumors in the pancreas make large amounts of vasoactive intestinal peptide. Also called VIP hormone.

vasomotor

listen (VAY-zoh-MOH-ter) Affecting the narrowing and widening of the blood vessels.

vatalanib

listen (va-TAH-la-nib) A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the families of drugs called protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors and VEGF receptor kinase inhibitors. Also called PTK787/ZK 222584.

VB4-845

A substance being studied in the treatment of certain types of head and neck cancer. VB4-845 is made by linking a monoclonal antibody fragment to a toxic protein that may kill cancer cells. It binds to EpCAM (a protein on the surface of epithelial cells and some types of cancer cells). Also called anti-EpCAM-Pseudomonas-exotoxin fusion protein and Proxinium.

Vectibix

listen (VEK-tih-bix) A human monoclonal antibody that is being used to treat colorectal cancer that has spread to other parts of the body. It is used in patients whose disease has not gotten better during or after treatment with other anticancer drugs. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Monoclonal antibodies are made in the laboratory and can locate and bind to substances in the body, including cancer cells. Vectibix binds to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and may block tumor cell growth. Also called ABX-EGF and panitumumab.

vegan

listen (VEE-gun) A person who does not eat any foods that come from animals, including meat, eggs, and dairy products. A vegan diet is being studied in the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer and other medical conditions.

VEGF

A substance made by cells that stimulates new blood vessel formation. Also called vascular endothelial growth factor.

VEGF Trap

listen (... trap) A drug used with other drugs to treat colorectal cancer that has spread to other parts of the body and has not gotten better with chemotherapy. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. VEGF Trap blocks the action of a protein called vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It is a type of antiangiogenesis agent. Also called vascular endothelial growth factor trap, Zaltrap, and ziv-aflibercept.

VEGF-AS

A substance that has been studied in the treatment of cancer. It binds to the RNA for a protein called vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that stimulates the growth of new blood vessels. VEGF-AS blocks the cells ability to make VEGF, which may kill tumors that need new blood vessels to grow. It is a type of antisense oligonucleotide and a type of gene expression inhibitor. Also called vascular endothelial growth factor-antisense oligonucleotide.

VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor

listen (VEGFR TY-ruh-seen KY-nays in-HIH-bih-ter) A substance that blocks an enzyme needed to form blood vessels. Also called vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor.

VEGFR-2 inhibitor CT-322

listen (... in-HIH-bih-ter ...) A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. VEGFR-2 inhibitor CT-322 may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) inhibitor and a type of antiangiogenesis agent. Also called Angiocept and CT-322.

vein

listen (vayn) A blood vessel that carries blood to the heart from tissues and organs in the body.

VeIP

An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used to treat advanced ovarian and testicular germ cell cancers. It includes the drugs vinblastine sulfate (Velban), ifosfamide (Ifex), and cisplatin (Platinol). Also called VeIP regimen.

VeIP regimen

listen ( REH-jih-men) An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used to treat advanced ovarian and testicular germ cell cancers. It includes the drugs vinblastine sulfate (Velban), ifosfamide (Ifex), and cisplatin (Platinol). Also called VeIP.

velafermin

listen (veh-luh-FER-min) A substance that is being studied in the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis (sores in the mouth) in patients receiving high-dose chemotherapy. Velafermin belongs to the family of drugs called recombinant human fibroblast growth factors (rhFGF).

Velban

listen (VEL-bun) A drug used to treat several types of cancer, including breast cancer and a type of gestational trophoblastic tumor that have not gotten better with other treatment, lymphoma, testicular cancer, Kaposi sarcoma, and mycosis fungoides. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Velban blocks cell growth by stopping cell division and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of vinca alkaloid and a type of antimitotic agent. Also called Velsar and vinblastine sulfate.

velcade

listen (VEL-kayd) A drug used to treat multiple myeloma. It is also used to treat mantle cell lymphoma in patients who have already received at least one other type of treatment and is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Velcade blocks several molecular pathways in a cell and may cause cancer cells to die. It is a type of proteasome inhibitor and a type of dipeptidyl boronic acid. Also called bortezomib and PS-341.

veliparib

listen (veh-lih-PAR-ib) A substance being studied in the treatment of breast cancers caused by mutations (changes) in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It blocks an enzyme involved in many functions of the cell, including the repair of DNA damage. DNA damage may be caused by normal cell actions, UV light, some anticancer drugs, and radiation used to treat cancer. Veliparib may cause cancer cells to die. It is a type of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor. Also called ABT-888 and PARP-1 inhibitor ABT-888.

Velsar

listen (VEL-sar) A drug used to treat several types of cancer, including breast cancer and a type of gestational trophoblastic tumor that have not gotten better with other treatment, lymphoma, testicular cancer, Kaposi sarcoma, and mycosis fungoides. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Velsar blocks cell growth by stopping cell division and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of vinca alkaloid and a type of antimitotic agent. Also called Velban and vinblastine sulfate.

veltuzumab

listen (vel-TOO-zoo-mab) A substance being studied in the treatment of several types of lymphoma. It binds to the protein CD20, which is found on B cells (a type of immune system cell) and some types of lymphoma cells. This causes the immune system to kill the cancer cells. Veltuzumab is a type of monoclonal antibody. Also called hA20, HCD20, and IMMU-106.

vemurafenib

listen (VEH-myoo-RA-feh-nib) A drug used to treat advanced melanoma that has a mutated (changed) form of a cell protein called BRAF. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Vemurafenib blocks this mutated protein, which may stop the growth of cancer cells. It is a type of kinase inhibitor and a type of targeted therapy agent. Also called BRAF (V600E) kinase inhibitor RO5185426, PLX4032, RG7204, and Zelboraf.

Venclexta

(ven-KLEK-stuh) A drug used to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in patients who have already received other treatment. It is used in patients whose cancer has a change in chromosome 17. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Venclexta binds to a protein called BCL2, which may be found on some types of leukemia cells. Blocking this protein may help kill cancer cells and may make them more sensitive to other anticancer drugs. Venclexta is a type of BCL2 inhibitor. Also called venetoclax.

venetoclax

(veh-NEH-toh-klax) A drug used to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in patients who have already received other treatment. It is used in patients whose cancer has a change in chromosome 17. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Venetoclax binds to a protein called BCL2, which may be found on some types of leukemia cells. Blocking this protein may help kill cancer cells and may make them more sensitive to other anticancer drugs. Venetoclax is a type of BCL2 inhibitor. Also called Venclexta.

venipuncture

listen (VEE-nih-PUNK-cher) A procedure in which a needle is used to take blood from a vein, usually for laboratory testing. Venipuncture may also be done to remove extra red blood cells from the blood, to treat certain blood disorders. Also called blood draw and phlebotomy.

venlafaxine

listen (ven-luh-FAK-seen) A drug used to treat depression and certain anxiety disorders. It may also be used to treat hot flashes in women who are in menopause or are being treated for breast cancer. Venlafaxine increases the levels of the chemicals serotonin and norepinephrine in the brain, which helps improve mood. It is a type of antidepressant and a type of serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. Also called Effexor.

venography

listen (veh-NAH-gruh-fee) A procedure in which an x-ray of the veins is taken after a special dye is injected into the bone marrow or veins.

venous catheter

listen (VEE-nus KA-theh-ter) A thin, flexible tube that is inserted into a large vein, usually in the arm, chest, or leg. It is used to give intravenous fluids, blood transfusions, and chemotherapy and other drugs, and for taking blood samples. It avoids the need for repeated needle sticks.

venous sampling

listen (VEE-nus...) A procedure in which a sample of blood is taken from a certain vein and checked for specific substances released by nearby organs and tissues. A higher than normal amount of a substance can be a sign of disease in the organ or tissue that makes it.

ventilator

listen (VEN-tih-LAY-ter) In medicine, a machine used to help a patient breathe. Also called respirator.

ventricle

listen (VEN-trih-kul) A fluid-filled cavity in the heart or brain.

Versed

listen (ver-SED) A drug used to treat anxiety and tension and to relax muscles. It is also being studied in the treatment of nausea and vomiting caused by some cancer treatments. It is a type of benzodiazepine. Also called midazolam and midazolam hydrochloride.

vertebral column

listen (ver-TEE-brul KAH-lum) The bones, muscles, tendons, and other tissues that reach from the base of the skull to the tailbone. The vertebral column encloses the spinal cord and the fluid surrounding the spinal cord. Also called backbone, spinal column, and spine.

vertebroplasty

listen (VER-teh-broh-PLAS-tee) A procedure used to repair a bone in the spine that has a break caused by cancer, osteoporosis (a decrease in bone mass and density), or trauma. Bone cement is injected into the broken bone to make it stronger.

verum acupuncture

listen (VEER-um AK-yoo-PUNK-cher) Refers to traditional acupuncture, which is the technique of inserting thin needles through the skin to certain depths and at certain points on the body to control pain and other symptoms. The term verum acupuncture may be used when comparing traditional acupuncture to sham (placebo) acupuncture. In sham acupuncture, needles do not go as deep and are not used at the same points on the body.

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