Disease & Drug Info

Glossary of Terms

F-18 16 alpha-fluoroestradiol

listen ( AL-fuh-FLOOR-oh-es-truh-DY-ol) A radiolabeled substance being studied as an imaging agent in breast cancer. F-18 16 alpha-fluoroestradiol binds to estrogen receptors and gives off radiation that can be detected by a PET scan. The PET scan forms an image that shows where cancer cells with estrogen receptors can be found in the body. It is a type of radioimaging agent. Also called F-18 FES.

F-18 FES

A radiolabeled substance being studied as an imaging agent in breast cancer. F-18 FES binds to estrogen receptors and gives off radiation that can be detected by a PET scan. The PET scan forms an image that shows where cancer cells with estrogen receptors can be found in the body. It is a type of radioimaging agent. Also called F-18 16 alpha-fluoroestradiol.

F-18 NaF PET

A procedure used to find out if cancer has spread to the bone. A small amount of a radioactive substance called fluorine F 18 sodium fluoride is injected into a vein. A PET scan is then used to make detailed pictures of the bones. Bones with cancer in them take up more fluorine F18 sodium fluoride than normal bones do. Also called F 18 sodium fluoride positron emission tomography and fluorine F 18 sodium fluoride PET.

F511 cream

listen ( creem) A substance being studied in the prevention of palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia (pain, swelling, numbness, tingling, or redness of the palms of the hands or soles of the feet) in breast cancer patients treated with anticancer drugs. F511 cream contains a substance that is used in products to control excess sweating under the arms and on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. It is a type of antiperspirant.

falimarev

listen (fuh-LIM-uh-rev) A cancer vaccine made with a form of a chicken virus that does not cause disease in humans. It is being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. The virus is changed in the laboratory to make human proteins that may help immune cells in the body kill tumor cells. Also called recombinant fowlpox-CEA-MUC-1-TRICOM vaccine.

fallopian tube

listen (fuh-LOH-pee-in...) A slender tube through which eggs pass from an ovary to the uterus. In the female reproductive tract, there is one ovary and one fallopian tube on each side of the uterus.

fallopian tube cancer

listen (fuh-LOH-pee-in KAN-ser) Cancer that forms in the tissue lining the fallopian tube (one of two long, slender tubes that connect the ovaries to the uterus). The cancer sometimes begins at the end of the fallopian tube near the ovary and spreads to the ovary. Fallopian tube cancer is similar to ovarian epithelial cancer and is staged and treated the same way.

false-negative test result

listen (... NEH-guh-tiv ... reh-ZULT) A test result that indicates that a person does not have a specific disease or condition when the person actually does have the disease or condition.

false-positive test result

listen (... PAH-zih-tiv ... reh-ZULT) A test result that indicates that a person has a specific disease or condition when the person actually does not have the disease or condition.

familial adenomatous polyposis

listen (fuh-MIH-lee-ul A-deh-NOH-muh-tus PAH-lee-POH-sis) An inherited condition in which numerous polyps (growths that protrude from mucous membranes) form on the inside walls of the colon and rectum. It increases the risk of colorectal cancer. Also called familial polyposis and FAP.

familial atypical multiple mole melanoma syndrome

listen (fuh-MIH-lee-ul AY-TIH-pih-kul MUL-tih-pul ... MEH-luh-NOH-muh SIN-drome) An inherited condition marked by the following: (1) one or more first- or second-degree relatives (parent, sibling, child, grandparent, grandchild, aunt, or uncle) with malignant melanoma; (2) many moles, some of which are atypical (asymmetrical, raised, and/or different shades of tan, brown, black, or red) and often of different sizes; and (3) moles that have specific features when examined under a microscope. Familial atypical multiple mole melanoma syndrome increases the risk of melanoma and may increase the risk of pancreatic cancer. Also called FAMMM syndrome.

familial cancer

listen (fuh-MIH-lee-ul KAN-ser) Cancer that occurs in families more often than would be expected by chance. These cancers often occur at an early age, and may indicate the presence of a gene mutation that increases the risk of cancer. They may also be a sign of shared environmental or lifestyle factors.

familial dysplastic nevi

listen (fuh-MIH-lee-ul dis-PLAS-tik NEE-vye) A condition that runs in certain families in which at least two members have dysplastic nevi (atypical moles) and have a tendency to develop melanoma.

familial isolated hyperparathyroidism

listen (fuh-MIH-lee-ul I-soh-LAY-ted HY-per-PAYR-uh-THY-roy-dih-zum) A rare inherited condition in which one or more tumors form in the parathyroid glands (four pea-sized organs found on the thyroid) and cause them to make too much parathyroid hormone. The increased parathyroid hormone causes a loss of calcium from the bones and too much calcium in the blood. Also called FIHP.

familial medullary thyroid cancer

listen (fuh-MIH-lee-ul MED-yoo-LAYR-ee THY-royd KAN-ser) An inherited form of medullary thyroid cancer (cancer that forms in the cells of the thyroid that make the hormone calcitonin).

familial polyposis

listen (fuh-MIH-lee-ul PAH-lee-POH-sis) An inherited condition in which numerous polyps (growths that protrude from mucous membranes) form on the inside walls of the colon and rectum. It increases the risk of colorectal cancer. Also called familial adenomatous polyposis and FAP.

family history

listen (FA-mih-lee HIH-stuh-ree) A record of the relationships among family members along with their medical histories. This includes current and past illnesses. A family history may show a pattern of certain diseases in a family. Also called family medical history.

family medical history

listen (FA-mih-lee MEH-dih-kul HIH-stuh-ree) A record of the relationships among family members along with their medical histories. This includes current and past illnesses. A family medical history may show a pattern of certain diseases in a family. Also called family history.

family therapy

listen (FA-mih-lee THAYR-uh-pee) A type of therapy in which the whole family talks with a professional counselor to solve family problems.

FAMMM syndrome

listen ( SIN-drome) An inherited condition marked by the following: (1) one or more first- or second-degree relatives (parent, sibling, child, grandparent, grandchild, aunt, or uncle) with malignant melanoma; (2) many moles, some of which are atypical (asymmetrical, raised, and/or different shades of tan, brown, black, or red) and often of different sizes; and (3) moles that have specific features when examined under a microscope. FAMMM syndrome increases the risk of melanoma and may increase the risk of pancreatic cancer. Also called familial atypical multiple mole melanoma syndrome.

Fanconi anemia

listen (fan-KOH-nee uh-NEE-mee-uh) A rare inherited disorder in which the bone marrow does not make blood cells. It is usually diagnosed in children between 2 and 15 years old. Symptoms include frequent infections, easy bleeding, and extreme tiredness. People with Fanconi anemia may have a small skeleton and brown spots on the skin. They also have an increased risk of developing certain types of cancer.

Fanconi syndrome

listen (fan-KOH-nee SIN-drome) A group of kidney disorders that cause protein, sugar, minerals, and other nutrients to be lost in the urine. Symptoms include weakness, bone pain, and passing a greater than normal amount of urine. One form of Fanconi syndrome is inherited and is usually found in infants. Fanconi syndrome may also be caused by other diseases, a lack of vitamin D, or exposure to heavy metals or chemicals, including certain anticancer drugs.

FAP

An inherited condition in which numerous polyps (growths that protrude from mucous membranes) form on the inside walls of the colon and rectum. It increases the risk of colorectal cancer. Also called familial adenomatous polyposis and familial polyposis.

Farydak

listen (FAYR-ah-dak) A drug used with bortezomib and dexamethasone to treat multiple myeloma. It is used in patients who have already been treated with bortezomib and an immunomodulating agent. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Farydak blocks certain enzymes needed for cells to grow and divide and may kill cancer cells. It may also prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It is a type of histone deacetylase inhibitor and a type of antiangiogenesis agent. Also called LBH589 and panobinostat.

Faslodex

listen (FAZ-loh-dex) A drug used to treat certain types of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Faslodex blocks estrogen activity in the body and is a type of antiestrogen. Also called fulvestrant and ICI 182780.

fast-neutron beam radiation

listen (fast-NOO-tron beem RAY-dee-AY-shun) A type of radiation therapy that uses tiny particles called neutrons made by a machine called a cyclotron.

fat necrosis

listen ( neh-KROH-sis) A benign condition in which fat tissue in the breast or other organs is damaged by injury, surgery, or radiation therapy. The fat tissue in the breast may be replaced by a cyst or by scar tissue, which may feel like a round, firm lump. The skin around the lump may look red, bruised or dimpled.

fatigue

listen (fuh-TEEG) A condition marked by extreme tiredness and inability to function due to lack of energy. Fatigue may be acute or chronic.

fat-soluble vitamin

listen ( SOL-yoo-bul VY-tuh-min) A vitamin that can dissolve in fats and oils. Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed along with fats in the diet and can be stored in the bodys fatty tissue. They come from plant and animal foods or dietary supplements. Vitamins A, D, E, and K are fat-soluble.

fatty acid

listen (FA-tee A-sid) A major component of fats that is used by the body for energy and tissue development.

fatty-replaced breast tissue

listen (FA-tee-reh-PLAYST brest TIH-shoo) A term used in mammography that refers to the replacement of breast tissue with fatty tissue. This commonly occurs as a woman ages.

FAU

A substance being studied in the treatment of advanced solid tumors and lymphomas. It blocks the growth of cells and may cause cancer cells to die. It is a type of uracil analog. Also called 1-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro--D-arabinofuranosyl) uracil.

fazarabine

listen (fuh-ZAR-uh-been) An anticancer drug that is a type of antimetabolite.

FDA

Anagency in the U.S. federal government whose mission is toprotect public health by making sure that food, cosmetics,and nutritional supplements are safe to use and truthfullylabeled. The FDA also makes surethat drugs, medical devices, and equipment are safe andeffective, and that blood for transfusions and transplanttissue are safe. Also called Food and Drug Administration.

FdCyd

A substance being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. It may prevent the growth of tumors by stopping cancer cells from dividing and by killing them. It is a type of antimetabolite. Also called 5-fluoro-2-deoxycytidine.

FDR

A parent, brother, sister, or child. Also called first-degree relative.

febrile neutropenia

listen (FEH-brile noo-troh-PEE-nee-uh) A condition marked by fever and a lower-than-normal number of neutrophils in the blood. A neutrophil is a type of white blood cell that helps fight infection. Having too few neutrophils increases the risk of infection.

FEC

An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used with other types of therapy to treat breast cancer, including breast cancer that has spread or come back. It includes the drugs fluorouracil, epirubicin hydrochloride, and cyclophosphamide. Also called FEC regimen.

FEC regimen

listen ( REH-jih-men) An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used with other types of therapy to treat breast cancer, including breast cancer that has spread or come back. It includes the drugs fluorouracil, epirubicin hydrochloride, and cyclophosphamide. Also called FEC.

fecal immunochemical test

listen (FEE-kul IH-myoo-noh-KEH-mih-kul ) A test that checks for occult (hidden) blood in the stool. Small samples of stool are placed on special cards and sent to a doctor or laboratory for testing. An antibody that binds to a blood protein called hemoglobin is used to detect any blood. Blood in the stool may be a sign of colorectal cancer or other problems, such as polyps, ulcers, or hemorrhoids. Also called FIT, iFOBT, immunoassay fecal occult blood test, immunochemical fecal occult blood test, and immunologic fecal occult blood test.

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