Disease & Drug Info

Glossary of Terms

D-1MT

A substance being studied in the treatment of melanoma and many other types of cancer. D-1MT blocks the breakdown of the amino acid tryptophan, which is needed for T cells (a type of immune system cell) to kill tumor cells. Giving D-1MT to patients who have received chemotherapy for cancer may help kill more tumor cells. It is a type of enzyme inhibitor and immunosuppressant. Also called 1-methyl-d-tryptophan.

D-20761

A synthetic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) antagonist that suppresses LH and sex steroid levels.

dabrafenib

listen (duh-BRA-feh-nib) A drug used alone or with trametinib to treat melanoma that cannot be removed by surgery or has spread to other parts of the body. It is used in patients with a mutated (changed) form of a cell protein called BRAF. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Dabrafenib blocks this mutated protein, which may help keep cancer cells from growing and may kill them. It is a type of kinase inhibitor and a type of targeted therapy. Also called Tafinlar.

DACA

A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is a type of topoisomerase inhibitor. Also called acridine carboxamide.

dacarbazine

listen (duh-KAR-buh-zeen) A drug used to treat Hodgkin lymphoma and malignant melanoma. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Dacarbazine attaches to DNA in cells and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of alkylating agent. Also called DTIC-Dome.

dacliximab

listen (duh-KLIK-sih-mab) A drug used to keep the body from rejecting kidney transplants. It is also being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer and other conditions. Dacliximab binds to receptors for a protein called interleukin-2 (IL-2), which are found on some types of immune cells and cancer cells. This may help suppress the bodys immune response and it may help kill cancer cells. Dacliximab is a type of monoclonal antibody. Also called daclizumab and Zenapax.

daclizumab

listen (duh-KLIH-zoo-mab) A drug used to keep the body from rejecting kidney transplants. It is also being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer and other conditions. Daclizumab binds to receptors for a protein called interleukin-2 (IL-2), which are found on some types of immune cells and cancer cells. This may help suppress the bodys immune response and it may help kill cancer cells. Daclizumab is a type of monoclonal antibody. Also called dacliximab and Zenapax.

Dacogen

listen (DA-koh-jen) A drug that is used to treat myelodysplastic syndromes and is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It is a type of antimetabolite. Also called decitabine.

dactinomycin

listen (DAK-tih-noh-MY-sin) A drug used to treat Ewing sarcoma, gestational trophoblastic tumor, Wilms tumor, and certain types of testicular cancer. It is also used to treat rhabdomyosarcoma in children. It is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Dactinomycin comes from the bacterium Streptomyces parvulus. It damages the cells DNA and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of anticancer antibiotic. Also called actinomycin D and Cosmegen.

da-huang

listen (dah-hwong) The root of this plant has been used in some cultures to treat certain medical problems. It may have anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. The scientific name is Rheum palmatum or Rheum officinale. Also called Chinese rhubarb, Indian rhubarb, rhubarb, and Turkish rhubarb.

daidzein

listen (DAYD-zine) An isoflavone found in soy products. Soy isoflavones are being studied in the prevention of cancer.

dalteparin

listen (dul-TEH-puh-rin) A drug used to prevent blood clots from forming or to treat blood clots that have formed in patients with cancer or other conditions. Dalteparin is a type of anticoagulant. Also called dalteparin sodium and Fragmin.

dalteparin sodium

listen (dul-TEH-puh-rin SOH-dee-um) A drug used to prevent blood clots from forming or to treat blood clots that have formed in patients with cancer or other conditions. Dalteparin sodium is a type of anticoagulant. Also called dalteparin and Fragmin.

danazol

listen (DA-nuh-zole) A synthetic hormone that is a type of androgen and is used to treat endometriosis. It is being evaluated in the treatment of endometrial cancer.

dapsone

listen (DAP-sone) A drug used to treat acne. It is also used to treat other types of skin diseases and certain bacterial infections, such as leprosy. It blocks bacteria from making a substance that they need to grow. Dapsone is a type of antibacterial agent and a type of anti-inflammatory agent.

daptomycin

listen (dap-toh-MY-sin) A drug used to treat certain bacterial skin and bloodstream infections in adults. Daptomycin is also being studied in the treatment of fever and neutropenia (an abnormal decrease in the number of neutrophils, a type of white blood cell) in patients with cancer. It is a type of antibiotic. Also called Cubicin.

DAR

A log of study drugs kept by an investigator running a clinical trial. It lists many things about each drug, including the drug name, lot number, expiration date, the amount of drug received, used, returned, or thrown away, and the amount left. DARs help make sure that a clinical trial is done safely and correctly. DARs are required by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Also called Drug Accountability Record.

daratumumab

listen (DAYR-uh-TOOM-yoo-mab) A drug used to treat multiple myeloma. It is used in patients whose cancer was treated with at least three anticancer therapies, including a proteasome inhibitor and an immunomodulating agent. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Daratumumab binds to a protein called CD38, which is found on some types of immune cells and cancer cells, including myeloma cells. Daratumumab may block CD38 and help the immune system kill cancer cells. It is a type of monoclonal antibody. Also called Darzalex.

darbepoetin alfa

listen (DAR-bee-POH-eh-tin AL-fuh) A substance made in the laboratory that stimulates the bone marrow to produce red blood cells. It belongs to the family of drugs called antianemics.

dark-field microscope

listen (... MY-kroh-SKOPE) A microscope (device used to magnify small objects) in which objects are lit at a very low angle from the side so that the background appears dark and the objects show up against this dark background.

Darzalex

listen (DAR-zah-lex) A drug used to treat multiple myeloma. It is used in patients whose cancer was treated with at least three anticancer therapies, including a proteasome inhibitor and an immunomodulating agent. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Darzalex binds to a protein called CD38, which is found on some types of immune cells and cancer cells, including myeloma cells. Darzalex may block CD38 and help the immune system kill cancer cells. It is a type of monoclonal antibody. Also called daratumumab.

dasatinib

listen (da-SA-tih-nib) A drug used to treat certain types of chronic myeloid leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Dasatinib is also being studied in the treatment of certain other blood diseases and types of cancer. Dasatinib binds to and blocks BCR-ABL and other proteins that help cancer cells grow. It is a type of tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Also called BMS-354825 and Sprycel.

Data and Safety Monitoring Board

listen (DAY-tuh ... SAYF-tee MAH-nih-ter-ing bord) An impartial group that oversees a clinical trial and reviews the results to see if they are acceptable. This group determines if the trial should be changed or closed. Also called DSMB.

daunomycin

listen (DAW-noh-MY-sin) The active ingredient in a drug used to treat acute leukemias and some other types of cancer. It blocks a certain enzyme needed for cell division and DNA repair, and it may kill cancer cells. It is a type of anthracycline antibiotic and a type of topoisomerase inhibitor. Also called daunorubicin.

daunomycin hydrochloride

listen (DAW-noh-MY-sin HY-droh-KLOR-ide) A drug used to treat acute leukemias and some other types of cancer. It blocks a certain enzyme needed for cell division and DNA repair, and it may kill cancer cells. Daunomycin hydrochloride is a type of anthracycline antibiotic and a type of topoisomerase inhibitor. Also called Cerubidine and daunorubicin hydrochloride.

daunorubicin

listen (DAW-noh-ROO-bih-sin) The active ingredient in a drug used to treat acute leukemias and some other types of cancer. It blocks a certain enzyme needed for cell division and DNA repair, and it may kill cancer cells. It is a type of anthracycline antibiotic and a type of topoisomerase inhibitor. Also called daunomycin.

daunorubicin hydrochloride

listen (DAW-noh-ROO-bih-sin HY-droh-KLOR-ide) A drug used to treat acute leukemias and some other types of cancer. It blocks a certain enzyme needed for cell division and DNA repair, and it may kill cancer cells. Daunorubicin hydrochloride is a type of anthracycline antibiotic and a type of topoisomerase inhibitor. Also called Cerubidine and daunomycin hydrochloride.

DBA

A very rare disorder in which the bone marrow doesnt make enough red blood cells. It is usually seen in the first year of life. Patients may have deformed thumbs and other physical problems. They also have an increased risk of leukemia and sarcoma, especially osteosarcoma (bone cancer). Patients with DBA may have a mutation (change) in one of the genes that make proteins found in the cells ribosomes. Also called BlackfanDiamond anemia, congenital hypoplastic anemia, congenital pure red cell aplasia, Diamond-Blackfan anemia, erythrogenesis imperfecta, and inherited erythroblastopenia.

DBE

A procedure used to look at the inside of the small intestine. A special instrument made up of two tubes (one inside the other) is inserted through the mouth or rectum and into the small intestine. The inside tube, which is an endoscope with a light and lens for viewing, is moved through part of the small intestine, and a balloon at the end of it is inflated to keep the endoscope in place. Next, the outer tube is moved through the small intestine to reach the end of the endoscope, and a balloon at the end of the outer tube is inflated to keep it in place. Then, the balloon at the end of the endoscope is deflated, and the endoscope is moved through the next part of the small intestine. These steps are repeated many times as the tubes move through the whole small intestine. This allows the doctor to see all of the small intestine. Tissue samples may be removed so they can be checked under a microscope for signs of disease. Also called double balloon endoscopy and double balloon enteroscopy.

DBVE

An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used with radiation therapy to treat childhood Hodgkin lymphoma. It includes the drugs doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin), bleomycin sulfate, vincristine sulfate, and etoposide. Also called ABVE, ABVE regimen, and DBVE regimen.

DBVE regimen

listen ( REH-jih-men) An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used with radiation therapy to treat childhood Hodgkin lymphoma. It includes the drugs doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin), bleomycin sulfate, vincristine sulfate, and etoposide. Also called ABVE, ABVE regimen, and DBVE.

DBVE-PC

An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used with radiation therapy to treat childhood Hodgkin lymphoma. It includes the drugs doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin), bleomycin sulfate, vincristine sulfate, etoposide, prednisone, and cyclophosphamide. Also called ABVE-PC, ABVE-PC regimen, and DBVE-PC regimen.

DBVE-PC regimen

listen ( REH-jih-men) An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used with radiation therapy to treat childhood Hodgkin lymphoma. It includes the drugs doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin), bleomycin sulfate, vincristine sulfate, etoposide, prednisone, and cyclophosphamide. Also called ABVE-PC, ABVE-PC regimen, and DBVE-PC.

DCF

An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used to treat certain types of head and neck cancer and stomach cancer. It includes the drugs docetaxel (Taxotere), cisplatin (Platinol), and fluorouracil. Also called docetaxel-cisplatin-fluorouracil, Taxotere-Platinol-fluorouracil, TPF, and TPF regimen.

DCIS

A noninvasive condition in which abnormal cells are found in the lining of a breast duct. The abnormal cells have not spread outside the duct to other tissues in the breast. In some cases, DCIS may become invasive cancer and spread to other tissues. At this time, there is no way to know which lesions could become invasive. Also called ductal carcinoma in situ and intraductal carcinoma.

D-cycloserine

listen (...SY-kloh-SAYR-een) A drug used to treat tuberculosis. It is also being studied in the treatment of pain and nerve problems (numbness, tingling) caused by chemotherapy and in the treatment of low back pain, autism, certain anxiety disorders, and schizophrenia. D-cycloserine is a type of antibiotic. Also called Seromycin.

DDS

A rare disorder that causes kidney failure before age 3, abnormal development of the sexual organs, and, in most cases, Wilms tumor (a type of kidney cancer). Children with Denys-Drash syndrome are also at high risk of some other types of cancer. Also called Denys-Drash syndrome.

de Gramont regimen

listen (dey gruh-MON REH-jih-men) A chemotherapy combination used to treat colorectal cancer. It is also used with radiation therapy to treat esophageal cancer and stomach cancer. It includes the drugs fluorouracil and leucovorin calcium.

de novo

listen (deh NOH-voh) In cancer, the first occurrence of cancer in the body.

de qi sensation

listen (duh chee sen-SAY-shun) Tingling, numbness, heaviness, and other feelings that occur after an acupuncture needle has been properly placed in the body. The needle may be twirled, moved up and down at different speeds and depths, heated, or charged with a small electric current until the de qi sensation occurs.

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