Disease & Drug Info

Drug Dictionary

S-3304

An orally-agent agent with potential antineoplastic activity. S-3304 inhibits matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), thereby inducing extracellular matrix degradation, and inhibiting angiogenesis, tumor growth and invasion, and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

sabarubicin

A disaccharide analogue of the anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic doxorubicin. Sabarubicin intercalates into DNA and interacts with topoisomerase II, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and repair and RNA and protein synthesis. This agent also induces apoptosis through a p53-independent mechanism. Sabarubicin is less cardiotoxic than doxorubicin. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Saccharomyces boulardii probiotic supplement

A probiotic containing the non-pathogenic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii with antidiarrheal and potential anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and immunomodulating activities. As a dietary supplement, S. boulardii may improve digestion and help maintain adequate colonization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract by modulating the composition of the normal intestinal microflora. During colonization of the GI tract, S. boulardii forms a protective barrier that helps maintain the integrity of the epithelial barrier. This prevents attachment of pathogens to the intestinal mucosa. In addition, this probiotic secretes a protease that binds to and degrades toxins A and B produced by Clostridium difficile, thereby preventing their harmful effects. Dietary supplementation with this microorganism may reduce the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and may potentiate natural and acquired immunity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

sacituzumab govitecan

An antibody-drug conjugate containing the humanized monoclonal antibody, hRS7, against tumor-associated calcium signal transducer 2 (TACSTD2 or TROP2) and linked to the active metabolite of irinotecan, 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38), with potential antineoplastic activity. The antibody moiety of sacituzumab govitecan selectively binds to TROP2. After internalization and proteolytic cleavage, SN-38 selectively stabilizes topoisomerase I-DNA covalent complexes, resulting in DNA breaks that inhibit DNA replication and trigger apoptosis. TROP2, also known as epithelial glycoprotein-1 (EGP-1), is a transmembrane calcium signal transducer that is overexpressed by a variety of human epithelial carcinomas; this antigen is involved in the regulation of cell-cell adhesion and its expression is associated with increased cancer growth, aggressiveness and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

S-adenosyl-L-methionine disulfate p-toluene-sulfonate

The disulfate salt of the stable p-toluene-sulfonate complex of s-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) with chemopreventive activity. SAMe disulfate p-toluene-sulfonate undergoes hydrolytic conversion to its active compound SAMe within cells. Although the mechanism of action is largely unknown, SAMe attenuates experimental liver damage and prevents experimental hepatocarcinogenesis. In addition, SAMe may reduce mitochondrial cytochrome C release, caspase 3 activation, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, and attenuate okadaic acid-mediated hepatocyte apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. SAMe is an essential compound in cellular transmethylation reactions and a precursor of polyamine and glutathione synthesis in the liver; SAMe deficiency is associated with chronic liver disease-associated decreases in the activity of methionine adenosyltransferase 1A (MAT1A), the enzyme that catalyzes the production of SAMe as the first step in methionine catabolism. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

S-adenosylmethionine

The active sulfonium form of methionine that is formed when methionine reacts with ATP and which acts as a methyl group donor in various transmethylation reactions. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

safingol

A saturated derivative of sphingosine. As an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC), safingol competitively binds to the regulatory phorbol-binding domain of PKC, a kinase involved in tumorigenesis. This agent has been shown to act synergistically with other chemotherapeutic agents and may potentiate chemotherapy drug-induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

sagopilone

A fully synthetic low-molecular-weight epothilone with potential antineoplastic activity. Sagopilone binds to tubulin and induces microtubule polymerization while stabilizing microtubules against depolymerization, which may result in the inhibition of cell division, the induction of G2/M arrest, and apoptosis. The agent is not a substrate for the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux pump and so may exhibit activity in multidrug-resistant (MDR) tumors. The epothilone class of metabolites was originally isolated from the myxobacterium Solangium cellulosum. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Salagen

(Other name for: pilocarpine hydrochloride)

salirasib

A salicylic acid derivative with potential antineoplastic activity. Salirasib dislodges all Ras isoforms from their membrane-anchoring sites, thereby preventing activation of RAS signaling cascades that mediated cell proliferation, differentiation, and senescence. RAS signaling is believed to be abnormally activated in one-third of human cancers, including cancers of the pancreas, colon, lung and breast. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

salmonella VNP20009

A genetically stable Salmonella typhimurium strain, attenuated by chromosomal deletion of the purI and msbB genes, with tumor-targeting activity. In rodent models, salmonella VNP20009 has been shown to selectively accumulate and grow in a variety of tumor types, inhibiting the growth of primary and metastatic tumors. This agent may be genetically engineered to contain trangenes that express therapeutic agents or cell surface tumor-associated antigen-specific antibodies, such as CEA-specific antibodies, which may improve its tumor targeting and therapeutic potential. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Salvia hispanica seed

The edible seed of the flowering plant Salvia hispanica (chia) used as a nutritional supplement, with potential immunomodulating activity. Upon ingestion, chia seed supplies essential fatty acids, including alpha linolenic acid (an omega-3) and linoleic acid (an omega-6), B vitamins, especially niacin (B3) and thiamine (B1), and several minerals, including calcium, zinc, manganese, magnesium, phosphorus and iron; it also contains high levels of antioxidants and dietary soluble fiber. When used as a dietary supplement, this agent may improve a patient's nutrient intake and may balance their intestinal microbiome. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Salvia officinalis extract tablet

An oral tablet containing an extract of the plant Salvia officinalis (common sage) with reported antihydrotic, antibiotic, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, astringent, antispasmodic, estrogenic, and hypoglycemic properties. The primary biologically active component of common sage appears to be its essential oil which contains mainly cineol, borneol, and alpha- and beta-thujone. In addition, sage leaf contains numerous other substances including tannic acid; resins with oleic, ursonic, and ursolic acids; bitter substances with cornsole and cornsolic acid; fumaric, chlorogenic, caffeic and nicotinic acids; nicotinamide; flavones; flavone glycosides; and estrogenic substances. However, the mechanism(s) of action of common sage in the treatment of various disorders is unclear. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Sam68 modulator CWP232291

A small molecule and prodrug of CWP232204 targeting Src associated in mitosis, of 68 kDa (Sam68 or KHDRBS1), with potential antineoplastic activity. CWP232291 is converted in serum into its active form CWP232204 which binds to Sam68, thereby resulting in the induction of apoptosis in selective cancer cells. Due to the multimodular structure of Sam68, the apoptosis mediated by CWP232204-Sam68 interaction can be attributed to 1) activation of transcription factor NF-kB induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha signaling, 2) alternative splicing of BCL-2 apoptosis gene, driving the balance towards pro-apoptotic as opposed to anti-apoptotic isoforms, 3) down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic protein survivin via Want signaling. Sam68, a KH domain RNA-binding protein belonging to the signal transduction and activation of RNA (STAR) family, plays a key role in various cellular processes including cell cycle progression and apoptosis; it is upregulated in many types of cancer cells and its expression is associated with increased cell proliferation and survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

samarium Sm 153 lexidronam pentasodium

The pentasodium salt of samarium Sm 153 lexidronam, a therapeutic agent consisting of a medium energy beta- and gamma-emitting radioisotope, samarium Sm 153, and a teraphosphonate chelator, ethylenediaminetetramethylene phosphonic acid (EDTMP). The chelator moiety of samarium Sm 153 lexidronam associates with hydroxyapatite crystals concentrated in areas of bone turnover, thereby selectively delivering samarium Sm 153-mediated cytotoxic radiation to osteoblastic bone metastases. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Samcyprone

(Other name for: diphencyprone)

SAM-e Complete

(Other name for: S-adenosyl-L-methionine disulfate p-toluene-sulfonate)

Sancuso

(Other name for: granisetron transdermal system)

Sandimmun

(Other name for: cyclosporine)

Sandimmune

(Other name for: cyclosporine)

Sandoglobulin

(Other name for: therapeutic immune globulin)

Sandostatin

(Other name for: octreotide acetate)

Sandostatin Lar Depot

(Other name for: octreotide acetate)

Sandostatin pamoate

(Other name for: octreotide pamoate)

Sandostatin pamoate LAR

(Other name for: octreotide pamoate)

SangCya

(Other name for: cyclosporine)

sapacitabine

An orally bioavailable pyrimidine analogue prodrug with potential antineoplastic activity. Sapacitabine is hydrolyzed by amidases to the deoxycytosine analogue CNDAC (2'-Cyano-2'-deoxyarabinofuranosylcytosine), which is then phosphorylated into the active triphosphate form. As an analogue of deoxycytidine triphosphate, CNDAC triphosphate incorporates into DNA strands during replication, resulting in single-stranded DNA breaks during polymerization due to beta-elimination during the fidelity checkpoint process; cell cycle arrest in the G2 phase and apoptosis ensue. The unmetabolized prodrug may exhibit antineoplastic activity as well. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

sapanisertib

An orally bioavailable inhibitor of raptor-mTOR (TOR complex 1 or TORC1) and rictor-mTOR (TOR complex 2 or TORC2) with potential antineoplastic activity. Sapanisertib binds to and inhibits both TORC1 and TORC2 complexes of mTOR, which may result in tumor cell apoptosis and a decrease in tumor cell proliferation. TORC1 and 2 are upregulated in some tumors and play an important role in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway, which is frequently dysregulated in human cancers. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

sapitinib

An erbB receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Sapitinib binds to and inhibits erbB tyrosine receptor kinases, which may result in the inhibition of cellular proliferation and angiogenesis in tumors expressing erbB. The erbB protein family, also called the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family, plays major roles in tumor cell proliferation and tumor vascularization. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

saponin-based immunoadjuvant OBI-821

A purified, natural saponin isolated from the soapbark tree Quillaja saponaria Molina with potential immunoadjuvant activity. When co-administered with a vaccine, OBI-821 may increase antibody and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses against the vaccine's targeted antigen(s). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

saponin-cholesterol-phospholipid adjuvant

An adjuvant comprised of saponin, derived from the bark of Quillaia saponaria Molina, cholesterol and phospholipid with antigen-delivery and immunostimulatory activities. This saponin-based adjuvant in combination with various antigens, including those for human papilloma virus (HPV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and the human cancer antigen NY-ESO-1, may result in potent antibody, CD4+ T-helper-cell, and CD8+ cytotoxic T-cell responses against the targeted antigen. In addition, this agent may reduce the amount of antigen necessary to induce an efficient immune response in the host. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

saquinavir mesylate

The mesylate salt form of saquinavir, a synthetic peptidomimetic substrate with antiviral property. Saquinavir selectively binds to and inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease, an aspartic protease that cleaves viral gag and gag-pol polyprotein (precursors for viral proteases, reverse transcriptase, and integrase). Inhibition of HIV-1 protease prevents functional viral proteins to be cleaved from the viral polyprotein precursor and results in the release of immature, noninfectious virions. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

saracatinib

An orally available 5-, 7-substituted anilinoquinazoline with anti-invasive and anti-tumor activities. Saracatinib is a dual-specific inhibitor of Src and Abl, protein tyrosine kinases that are overexpressed in chronic myeloid leukemia cells. This agent binds to and inhibits these tyrosine kinases and their effects on cell motility, cell migration, adhesion, invasion, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Specifically, saracatinib inhibits Src kinase-mediated osteoclast bone resorption. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Sarasar

(Other name for: lonafarnib)

SarCNU

An alkylating chloroethylnitrosourea with antineoplastic activity. Selectively accumulating in some tumor cells, SarCNU forms covalent linkages with nucleophilic centers in DNA, causing depurination, base pair miscoding, strand scission, and DNA-DNA cross-linking, which may result in cytotoxicity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

sargramostim

A recombinant therapeutic agent which is chemically identical to or similar to endogenous human GM-CSF. Binding to specific cell surface receptors, sargramostim modulates the proliferation and differentiation of a variety of hematopoietic progenitor cells with some specificity towards stimulation of leukocyte production and may reverse treatment-induced neutropenias. This agent also promotes antigen presentation, up-regulates antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), and increases interleukin-2-mediated lymphokine-activated killer cell function; it may also augment host antitumoral immunity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

sargramostim plasmid DNA hepatocellular carcinoma vaccine adjuvant

A vaccine adjuvant consisting of a plasmid DNA encoding sargramostim (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor). Upon administration, expressed sargramostim may stimulate a cytotoxic T cell response enhancing the host immune response to a concomitantly administered hepatocellular carcinoma vaccine. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

sargramostim plasmid DNA melanoma vaccine adjuvant

A vaccine adjuvant consisting of a plasmid DNA encoding sargramostim (a granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor). Upon administration, expressed sargramostim may stimulate a cytotoxic T cell response enhancing the host immune response to a concomitantly administered melanoma vaccine. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

sargramostim plasmid DNA pancreatic tumor cell vaccine

A whole cell vaccine comprised of irradiated allogenic pancreatic tumor cells transfected with a plasmid DNA encoding human sargramostim (GM-CSF). Vaccination results in expression of GM-CSF, which induces proliferation and differentiation hematopoietic lineage cells as well as stimulating macrophage and dendritic cell functions in antigen presentation and antitumor cell-mediated immunity. Furthermore, administration of this pancreatic tumor cell vaccine may elicit a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against similar host tumor cells, resulting in decreased tumor growth. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

saridegib

An orally bioavailable, cyclopamine-derived inhibitor of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway with potential antineoplastic activity. Specifically, saridegib binds to and inhibits the cell membrane-spanning G-protein coupled receptor SMO, which may result in the suppression of Hh pathway signaling and a decrease in tumor cell proliferation and survival. SMO is activated upon binding of Hh ligand to the cell surface receptor Patched (PTCH); inappropriate activation of Hh signaling and uncontrolled cellular proliferation may be associated with SMO mutations. The Hh signaling pathway plays an important role in proliferation of neuronal precursor cells in the developing cerebellum and other tissues. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

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