Disease & Drug Info

Drug Dictionary

oat biscuit

A biscuit containing oats. Check for active clinical trials using this agent.

obatoclax mesylate

The mesylate salt of obatoclax, a synthetic small-molecule inhibitor of the bcl-2 family of proteins with potential pro-apoptotic and antineoplastic activities. Obatoclax binds to members of the Bcl-2 protein family, preventing the binding of these anti-apoptotic proteins to the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and Bak and so promoting the activation of the apoptotic pathway in Bcl-2-overexpressing cells. The Bcl-2 family of proteins (bcl-2, bcl-xl, bcl-w, and Mcl-1) are overexpressed in a wide variety of cancers, including those of the lymphatic system, breast, lung, prostate, and colon. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

obinutuzumab

A glycoengineered, fully humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody with potential antineoplastic activity. Obinutuzumab, a third generation type II anti-CD20 antibody, selectivity binds to the extracellular domain of the human CD20 antigen on malignant human B cells. The Fc region carbohydrates of the antibody, enriched in bisected non-fucosylated glycosylation variants, contribute to its higher binding affinity for human FcgammaRIII receptors compared to non-glycoengineered antibodies, resulting in enhanced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and caspase-independent apoptosis. In addition, modification of elbow hinge sequences within the antibody variable framework regions may account for the strong apoptosis-inducing activity of R7159 upon binding to CD20 on target cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

oblimersen sodium

The sodium salt of a phosphorothioate antisense oligonucleotide targeted to the initiation codon region of mRNA for the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2. Oblimersen inhibits Bcl-2 mRNA translation, which may result in decreased expression of the Bcl-2 protein and tumor cell apoptosis. This agent may enhance the efficacy of standard cytotoxic chemotherapy. The anti-apoptotic bcl-2 protein is an integral outer mitochondrial membrane protein (OMMP) that is overexpressed in some cancer cell types and is linked to tumor drug resistance. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ocaratuzumab

An Fc-engineered monoclonal antibody directed against human CD20 with potential antineoplastic activity. Ocaratuzumab specifically binds to CD20 antigen (B1), preventing mitogen-induced B-cell proliferation; inhibiting B-cell differentiation; and promoting antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and apoptosis of B cells expressing CD20. The Fc portion of this monoclonal antibody has been engineered to possess a higher binding affinity for variant Fc receptors on T helper cells, resulting in an augmentation of the anti-tumor immune response. Because of Fc engineering, this agent may be significantly more potent than rituximab in inducing B cell-directed ADCC. CD20 is a non-glycosylated cell surface phosphoprotein that is exclusively expressed on B cells during most stages of B cell development. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ocrelizumab

A Fc-modified, humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the B-cell CD20 cell surface antigen, with immunosuppressive activity. Ocrelizumab binds to CD20 on the surfaces of B-cells, triggering complement-dependent cell lysis (CDCL) and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) of B-cells overexpressing CD20. The CD20 antigen, a non-glycosylated cell surface phosphoprotein that acts as a calcium ion channel, is found on over 90% of B-cells, B-cell lymphomas, and other lymphoid tumor cells of B-cell origin; it plays an important role in B-cell functioning. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Octreoscan

(Other name for: indium In 111 pentetreotide)

octreotide acetate

The acetate salt of a synthetic long-acting cyclic octapeptide with pharmacologic properties mimicking those of the natural hormone somatostatin. Octreotide is a more potent inhibitor of growth hormone, glucagon, and insulin than somatostatin. Similar to somatostatin, this agent also suppresses the luteinizing hormone response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone, decreases splanchnic blood flow, and inhibits the release of serotonin, gastrin, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), secretin, motilin, pancreatic polypeptide, and thyroid stimulating hormone. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

octreotide pamoate

A synthetic long-acting octapeptide analogue of endogenous somatostatin. Octreotide pamoate binds to somatostatin receptors expressed by some neuroendocrine and non-neuroendocrine tumor cells, thereby initiating somatostatin receptor-mediated apoptosis. Other possible antineoplastic activities of this agent include suppression of tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth-promoting insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

odanacatib

An inhibitor of cathepsin K with potential anti-osteoporotic activity. Odanacatib selectively binds to and inhibits the activity of cathepsin K, which may result in a reduction in bone resorption, improvement of bone mineral density, and a reversal in osteoporotic changes. Cathepsin K, a tissue-specific cysteine protease that catalyzes degradation of bone matrix proteins such as collagen I/II, elastin, and osteonectin plays an important role in osteoclast function and bone resorption. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Odomzo

(Other name for: sonidegib)

OEPA regimen

A regimen consisting of vincristine, etoposide, prednisone and doxorubicin for the treatment of male patients with childhood Hodgkin lymphoma. (NCI Thesaurus)

Oestrogenine

(Other name for: diethylstilbestrol)

Oestromenin

(Other name for: diethylstilbestrol)

Oestromon

(Other name for: diethylstilbestrol)

ofatumumab

A fully human, high-affinity IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed against the B cell CD20 cell surface antigen with potential antineoplastic activity. Ofatumumab binds specifically to CD20 on the surfaces of B cells, triggering complement-dependent cell lysis (CDCL) and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) of B cells overexpressing CD20. The CD20 antigen, found on over 90% of B cells, B cell lymphomas, and other B cells of lymphoid tumors of B cell origin, is a non-glycosylated cell surface phosphoprotein that acts as a calcium ion channel; it is exclusively expressed on B cells during most stages of B cell development. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

OFF regimen

A chemotherapy regimen that includes leucovorin, 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin, which may be used in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. (NCI Thesaurus)

ofloxacin

A fluoroquinolone antibacterial antibiotic. Ofloxacin binds to and inhibits bacterial topoisomerase II (DNA gyrase) and topoisomerase IV, enzymes involved in DNA replication and repair, resulting in cell death in sensitive bacterial species. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

oglufanide disodium

The disodium salt of a synthetic form of a naturally-occurring dipeptide consisting of L-glutamic acid and L-tryptophan with potential antiangiogenic and potential immunomodulating activities. Oglufanide inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which may inhibit angiogenesis. This agent has also been reported to stimulate the immune response to hepatitic C virus and intracellular bacterial infections. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

olanzapine

A synthetic derivative of thienobenzodiazepine with antipsychotic, antinausea, and antiemetic activities. As a selective monoaminergic antagonist, olanzapine binds with high affinity binding to the following receptors: serotoninergic, dopaminergic, muscarinic M1-5, histamine H1, and alpha-1-adrenergic receptors; it binds weakly to gamma-aminobutyric acid type A, benzodiazepine, and beta-adrenergic receptors. The antinausea and antiemetic effects of this agent appear to be due to the blockade of 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 receptors for serotonin. Although its exact mechanism of action in schizophrenia is unknown, it has been proposed that olanzapine's antipsychotic activity is mediated through antagonism to dopamine D2 receptors with rapid ligand-receptor dissociation kinetics that help to minimize extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS). Olanzapine may also stimulate appetite. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

olaparib

A small molecule inhibitor of the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) with potential chemosensitizing, radiosensitizing, and antineoplastic activities. Olaparib selectively binds to and inhibits PARP, inhibiting PARP-mediated repair of single strand DNA breaks; PARP inhibition may enhance the cytotoxicity of DNA-damaging agents and may reverse tumor cell chemoresistance and radioresistance.PARP catalyzes post-translational ADP-ribosylation of nuclear proteins and can be activated by single-stranded DNA breaks. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

olaratumab

A fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed against the platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFR alpha) with potential antineoplastic activity. Olaratumab selectively binds to PDGFR alpha, .blocking the binding of its ligand, PDGF; signal transduction downstream of PDGFR through the MAPK and PI3K pathways is inhibited, which may result in inhibition of angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation. Overexpressed by various cancer cell types, PDGFR is a transmembrane protein tyrosine kinase receptor, consisting of isoforms A and B, that is important in regulating cellular growth and differentiation and angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

oleandrin

A lipid soluble cardiac glycoside with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, oleandrin specifically binds to and inhibits the alpha3 subunit of the Na/K-ATPase pump in human cancer cells. This may inhibit the phosphorylation of Akt, upregulate MAPK, inhibit NF-kb activation and inhibit FGF-2 export and may downregulate mTOR thereby inhibiting p70S6K and S6 protein expression. All of this may lead to an induction of apoptosis. As cancer cells with relatively higher expression of the alpha3 subunit and with limited expression of the alpha1 subunit are more sensitive to oleandrin, one may predict the tumor response to treatment with lipid-soluble cardiac glycosides such as oleandrin based on the tumors Na/K-ATPase pump protein subunit expression. Overexpression of the alpha3 subunit in tumor cells correlates with tumor proliferation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

oligofructose-enriched inulin

A mixture of non-digestible carbohydrates, containing the fermentable plant fructans oligosaccharide and inulin, with potential prebiotic activity. Resisting hydrolysis by intestinal digestive enzymes, inulin and oligofructose serve as growth media and energy substrates for bifidobacteria in the colon; beneficial colonic commensal bacteria such as bifidobacteria may inhibit the colonization of the intestine by pathogenic bacteria and have been inplicated to inhibit colon carcinogenesis. Oligofructose-enriched inulin may be administered in combination with probiotic bifidobacteria. In addition, this agent may promote the absorption of calcium and magnesium from the gastrointestinal tract. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

oligonucleotide SPC2996

A synthetic antisense oligonucleotide against Bcl-2 messenger RNA with potential antitumor activity. Oligonucleotide SPC2996 binds to and inactivates Bcl-2 mRNA, thereby inhibiting the expression of Bcl-2 protein, promoting tumor cell apoptosis, and potentially enhancing the efficacy of standard cytotoxic chemotherapy. Linked to tumor drug resistance, the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 is upregulated in several types of cancers. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

olive oil extract/curcumin-based capsule

A capsule containing an extract of olive oil, rich in polyphenols and curcumin, the polyphenol derived from the plant Curcuma longa, also known as turmeric, with potential anti-neoplastic, -angiogenic, -inflammatory, -oxidant and chemopreventive activities. The olive oil extract/curcumin-based capsule is rich in phytonutrients, especially polyphenols. Upon oral administration, the polyphenols, and other active ingredients in this supplement may exert anti-inflammatory activity by decreasing the production of inflammation mediators, such as TNF-alpha, interleukin (IL) 1-beta, IL-6, IL-10, interferon gamma, thromboxane B2, and leukotriene B4. They also inhibit a variety of pro-inflammatory enzymes, such as cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1) and COX-2, block the formation of reactive-oxygen species and neutralize free radicals. In addition, curcumin and some other polyphenols disrupt cell signal transduction pathways involved in carcinogenesis. Specifically, curcumin inhibits cell invasion by inhibiting matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression by suppressing NF-kB and AP-1 activation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

olive oil/soya oil/egg lecithin-based emulsion

An injectable, isotonic, nutritional lipid emulsion composed of approximately 80% refined olive oil and 20% refined soybean oil, used for parenteral nutrition. The olive oil/soya oil/egg lecithin emulsion provides about 15% of saturated fatty acids (SFA), 65% of mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and 20% of essential poly-unsaturated fatty acids (EPUFA). Upon parenteral administration, the emulsion supplies calories, for energy, and essential fatty acids that can be incorporated into cell membranes. The fatty acids may decrease the production of certain pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin 1 (IL-1), IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). In addition to olive oil and soya oil, this lipid emulsion contains egg lecithin and provides phosphorus and choline, which are needed to maintain cell membrane integrity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

omacetaxine mepesuccinate

A semisynthetic formulation of the cytotoxic plant alkaloid homoharringtonine isolated from the evergreen tree Cephalotaxus with potential antineoplastic activity. Omacetaxine mepesuccinate binds to the 80S ribosome in eukaryotic cells and inhibits protein synthesis by interfering with chain elongation. This agent also induces differentiation and apoptosis in some cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

omalizumab

A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the C-epsilon 3 domain of immunoglobulin E. Olizumab binds to this IgE domain, thereby preventing IgE from binding to its high-affinity mast-cell receptor. Check for active clinical trials using this agent.

ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir

An orally bioavailable combination agent containing ombitasvir, an inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) non-structural protein 5A (NS5A) replication complex, paritaprevir, a synthetic acylsulfonamide inhibitor of the HCV protease complex comprised of non-structural protein 3 and 4A (NS3/NS4A), and the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 inhibitor ritonavir, with potential activity against HCV. Upon oral administration of ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir, ombitasvir, enters the cell and binds to and blocks the activity of the NS5A protein. This results in the disruption of the viral RNA replication complex, blockage of HCV RNA production, and inhibition of viral replication. After intracellular uptake, paritaprevir reversibly binds to the active center and binding site of the HCV NS3/NS4A protease and prevents NS3/NS4A protease-mediated polyprotein maturation. This disrupts both the processing of viral proteins and the formation of the viral replication complex, which inhibits viral replication in HCV genotype 1-infected host cells. Although ritonavir is not active against HCV, it strongly inhibits the activity of CYP3A4, thereby blocking the degradation of paritaprevir, which is a CYP3A4 substrate. This leads to an increased concentration and half-life of paritaprevir as compared to the administration of paritaprevir without ritonavir. NS5A, a zinc-binding and proline-rich hydrophilic phosphoprotein, plays a crucial role in HCV RNA replication. NS3, a serine protease essential for the proteolytic cleavage of multiple sites within the HCV polyprotein, plays a key role during HCV ribonucleic acid (RNA) replication. NS4A is an activating factor for NS3. HCV is a small, enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family, and infection is associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ombrabulin

A synthetic water-soluble analogue of combretastatin A4, derived from the South African willow bush (Combretum caffrum), with potential vascular-disrupting and antineoplastic activities. Ombrabulin binds to the colchicine binding site of endothelial cell tubulin, inhibiting tubulin polymerization and inducing mitotic arrest and apoptosis in endothelial cells. As apoptotic endothelial cells detach from their substrata, tumor blood vessels collapse; the acute disruption of tumor blood flow may result in tumor necrosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

omega-3 fatty acid

Any fatty acid that contains an unsaturated bond originating from the 3rd carbon from the methyl end. Omega-3 fatty acids do not occur naturally with chain lengths shorter than 16 carbon units. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

omeprazole

A benzimidazole with selective and irreversible proton pump inhibition activity. Omeprazole forms a stable disulfide bond with the sulfhydryl group of the hydrogen-potassium (H+ - K+) ATPase found on the secretory surface of parietal cells, thereby inhibiting the final transport of hydrogen ions (via exchange with potassium ions) into the gastric lumen and suppressing gastric acid secretion. This agent exhibits no anticholinergic activities and does not antagonize histamine H2 receptors. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

omiganan pentahydrochloride

A pentahydrochloride salt of omiganan, a synthetic cationic antimicrobial peptide with wide-spectrum activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and fungi. Omiganan pentahydrochloride, an analog of indolicidin, acts by disrupting bacterial cytoplasmic membranes and has been tested in a topical gel for the prevention of catheter-related bloodstream infections. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Omnipaque

(Other name for: iohexol)

OmniScan

(Other name for: gadodiamide)

onartuzumab

A humanized monovalent monoclonal antibody directed against the hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-Met) with potential antineoplastic activity. Onartuzumab binds to the extracellular domain of c-Met, preventing the binding of its ligand, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF); the activation of the c-Met signaling pathway is thus inhibited, which may result in cell death in c-Met-expressing tumor cells. c-Met, a receptor tyrosine kinase, is overexpressed on the cell surfaces of a variety of cancer cell types and may play a key role in their proliferation, invasion and survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Oncaspar

(Other name for: pegaspargase)

Oncaspar-IV

(Other name for: calaspargase pegol)

OncoGel

(Other name for: PGLA/PEG copolymer-based paclitaxel)

Next Page