Disease & Drug Info

Drug Dictionary

Maalox suspension

(Other name for: magnesium hydroxide/aluminum hydroxide/simethicone suspension)

macimorelin

An orally available synthetic mimetic of the growth hormone (GH) secretagogue ghrelin with potential anti-cachexia activity. Upon oral administration, macimorelin mimics endogenous ghrelin by stimulating appetite and binds to the growth hormone secretagogue receptor GHSR in the central nervous system, thereby mimicking the GH-releasing effects of ghrelin from the pituitary gland. Stimulation of GH secretion increases insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels which may further stimulate protein synthesis. In addition, ghrelin reduces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which may play a direct role in cancer-related loss of appetite. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

macitentan

An orally available dual endothelin receptor (ETR) antagonist with potential antihypertensive and antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, macitentan and its metabolites block the binding of endothelin isoform 1 (ET-1) to type-A and type-B ETR on both the tumor cells and the endothelial cells in the tumor vasculature. This prevents ET-1 mediated signaling transduction which may decrease tumor cell proliferation, progression, and angiogenesis in tumor tissue. ET-1, a potent vasoconstrictor that plays an important role in inflammation and tissue repair, is, together with its receptors, overexpressed varyingly in many tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

macrogol 3350-based oral osmotic laxative

An isotonic solution containing macrogol 3350 and electrolytes with laxative activity. Macrogol 3350-based oral osmotic laxative promotes the retention of water in the bowel, thereby increasing the water content of stool, which results in increased gastrointestinal motility and stool transit time and evacuation of colonic contents. Macrogol 3350 is also known as polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

mafosfamide

A synthetic oxazaphosphorine derivative with antineoplastic properties. Mafosfamide alkylates DNA, forming DNA cross-links and inhibiting DNA synthesis. Although closely related to cyclophosphamide, mafosfamide, unlike cyclophosphamide, does not require hepatic activation to generate its active metabolite 4-hydroxy-cyclophosphamide; accordingly, mafosfamide is potentially useful in the intrathecal treatment of neoplastic meningitis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

MAGE-10.A2

A synthetic nonapeptide derived from a melanoma-associated antigen. Vaccination with MAGE-10.A2 may stimulate a host cytotoxic T-cell response against tumor cells that express the melanoma-associated antigen, resulting in tumor cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

MAGE-3.A1 peptide vaccine

A synthetic peptide cancer vaccine consisting of human leukocyte antigen HLA-A1-restricted peptide derived from human melanoma antigen 3 (MAGE-3) with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, MAGE-3.A1 peptide vaccine may stimulate the immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing MAGE-3, resulting in tumor cell lysis. MAGE-3, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA), is overexpressed by a variety of cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

MAGE-A1, Her-2/neu, FBP peptides ovarian cancer vaccine

A cancer vaccine containing multiple synthetic antigen peptides derived from MAGE-A1, Her-2/neu, and folate binding protein (FBP) with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic properties. MAGE-A1, Her-2/neu, FBP peptides cancer vaccine includes the antigen peptides MAGE-A1:161-169, FBP:191-199, Her-2/neu:369-377, MAGE-A1:96-104, and Her-2/neu:754-762. Upon administration, this cancer vaccine may stimulate the immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing these antigen peptides, resulting in tumor cell lysis. MAGE-A1, Her-2/neu, and FBP proteins may be over-expressed in various cancer cell types, such as epithelial ovarian cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

MAGE-A1, MAGE-A3, NY-ESO-1 peptides vaccine

A cancer vaccine comprised of synthetic peptides derived from human melanoma antigen A1 (MAGE-A1), human melanoma antigen A3 (MAGE-A3) and cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1 with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, MAGE-A1/MAGE-A3/NY-ESO-1 peptides vaccine may stimulate the immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing MAGE-A1, MAGE-A3 and NY-ESO-1, resulting in tumor cell lysis. The MAGE-A1, MAGE-A3, and NY-ESO-1 tumor-associated antigens (TAAS) are overexpressed by a variety of cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

MAGE-A3 peptide vaccine

A peptide cancer vaccine comprised of a peptide derived from the human melanoma antigen A3 (MAGE-A3), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, MAGE-A3 peptide vaccine may stimulate the immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing MAGE-A3, resulting in tumor cell lysis. MAGE-A3, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA), is overexpressed by a variety of cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

MAGE-A3 reactive T cell receptor-transduced autologous T cells

Human autologous T-lymphocytes transduced with a retroviral vector encoding a T cell receptor (TCR) specific for the human melanoma antigen A3 (MAGE-A3), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon isolation, transduction, expansion ex vivo, and reintroduction into the patient, the MAGE-A3 reactive TCR-transduced autologous T cells bind to tumor cells expressing MAGE-A3, which may halt the growth of MAGE-A3-expressing cancer cells; the TCR is specific for MAGE-A3:168-176. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

MAGE-A3/HPV 16 peptide vaccine

A multi-epitope "Trojan antigen" ("TA") construct vaccine consisting of human melanoma antigen A3 (MAGE-A3) and human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 peptide epitopes linked by the furin-sensitive linker peptide RVKR (arginine-serine-lysine-arginine) with immunostimulatory and antitumor activities. The TA construct enters the cytoplasm of antigen-presenting cells (APC) and is processed by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the trans-Golgi network (TGN), where the endopeptidase furin releases the epitopes from the RVKR linker peptide and, together with various exopeptidases, generates MHC class I-binding peptides. Expressed on the cell surfaces of APC, these MHC class I-binding peptides stimulate a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells that display the same peptide epitopes on their cell surfaces. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

MAGE-A3-expressing adenovirus type5 vaccine

An oncolytic adenoviral vaccine composed of a replication-defective, E1- and E3-deleted adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) with a transgene encoding the human melanoma antigen A3 (MAGE-A3), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, MAGE-A3-expressing adenovirus type 5 vaccine selectively replicates in cancer cells and expresses MAGE-A3. This induces an immune response against tumor cells expressing the MAGE-A3 antigen, which leads to tumor cell death. The tumor-associated antigen MAGE-A3 is overexpressed by a variety of cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

MAGE-A4-specific TCR gene-transduced T lymphocytes TBI-1201

Autologous human T lymphocytes transduced with a retroviral vector encoding a T-cell receptor (TCR) specific for the human melanoma antigen A4 (MAGE-A4), with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon isolation, transduction, expansion ex vivo, and reintroduction into the patient, MAGE-A4-specific TCR gene-transduced T lymphocytes TBI-1201 binds to tumor cells expressing MAGE-A4. This may result in both an inhibition of growth and increased cell death for MAGE-A4-expressing tumor cells. The tumor-associated antigen MAGE-A4 is overexpressed by a variety of cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

magnesium citrate

The citrate salt of the element magnesium with cathartic activity. The cathartic action of magnesium cations appears to result, in part, from osmotically mediated water retention, which subsequently stimulates peristalsis. In addition, magnesium ions may also stimulate the activity of nitric oxide (NO) synthase and increase the biosynthesis of the phospholipid proinflammatory mediator platelet activating factor (PAF) in the gut. NO may stimulate intestinal secretion via prostglandin- and cyclic GMP-dependent mechanisms while PAF produces significant stimulation of colonic secretion and gastrointestinal motility. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

magnesium hydroxide

A solution of magnesium hydroxide with antacid and laxative properties. Milk of magnesium exerts its antacid activity in low doses such that all hydroxide ions that enter the stomach are used to neutralize stomach acid. This agent exerts its laxative effect in higher doses so that hydroxide ions are able to move from the stomach to the intestines where they attract and retain water, thereby increasing intestinal movement (peristalsis) and inducing the urge to defecate. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

magnesium hydroxide/aluminum hydroxide/simethicone suspension

An oral suspension containing magnesium hydroxide, aluminum hydroxide and simethicone with antacid activity. Both magnesium hydroxide and aluminum hydroxide react with excess acid in the stomach thereby neutralizing gastric acid. Simethicone, a mixture of polydimethylsiloxane and silica gel, reduces the surface tension of gas bubbles, promoting gas bubble coalescence and so intestinal gas transit and evacuation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate

The magnesium salt form of the saponin, isoglycyrrhizinate, a derivative of glycyrrhizic acid extracted from the roots of the plant Glycyrrhiza glabra, with potential anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities. Although the exact mechanism of action remains to be fully elucidated, magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate may prevent or reduce hepatotoxicity through the scavenging of free radicals. This agent also modulates the activity of hepatic enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

magnesium L-threonate

A nutritional supplement containing the L-threonate form of magnesium (Mg) that can be used to normalize Mg levels in the body. Upon administration, Mg is utilized by the body for many biochemical functions and reactions including: bone and muscle function, protein and fatty acid formation, activation of B vitamins, blood clotting, insulin secretion, and ATP formation. Mg also serves as a catalyst for many enzymes throughout the body. In addition, magnesium improves the functioning of the immune system by enhancing the expression of natural killer activating receptor NKG2D in cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells. This increases their anti-viral and anti-tumor cytotoxic effects. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

magnesium oxide

The oxide salt of magnesium with antacid, laxative and vascular smooth muscle relaxant activities. Magnesium combines with water to form magnesium hydroxide which reacts chemically to neutralize or buffer existing quantities of stomach acid; stomach-content and intra-esophageal pH rise, resulting in a decrease in pepsin activity. This agent's laxative effect is the result, in part, of osmotically mediated water retention, which subsequently stimulates peristalsis. In addition, magnesium ions may behave as calcium antagonists in vascular smooth muscle. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

magnesium valproate

The magnesium salt of valproic acid (2-propylpentanoic acid) with antiepileptic and potential antineoplastic activities. Magnesium valproate dissociates in the gastrointestinal tract and is absorbed into the circulation as magnesium ions and valproic acid ions; valproic acid may inhibit histone deacetylases, inducing tumor cell differentiation, apoptosis, and growth arrest. In addition, valproic acid exerts an antiepileptic effect, likely by inhibiting enzymes that catabolize the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) catabolism and so increasing concentrations of GABA in the central nervous system (CNS). The presence of the magnesium in this agent may contribute to its anticonvulsant activity and sedative properties. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Magnevist

(Other name for: gadopentetate dimeglumine)

MAG-Tn3/AS15 vaccine

A vaccine containing synthetic multiple antigenic glycopeptide (MAG) composed of tri Tn glycotope (MAG-Tn3), which comprises a dendrimeric, nonimmunogenic lysine core linked to a tetravalent peptidic CD4+ T-cell epitope backbone and each attached to three Tn antigens (tri-Tn cluster), combined with the immunoadjuvant AS15, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of the MAG-Tn3/AS15 vaccine, MAG-Tn3 induces the production of tumor-specific anti-Tn glycosidic antibodies, which results in antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC) against Tn-expressing tumor cells. The Tn carbohydrate antigen, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA), is overexpressed in a number of tumor cell types. The tri-Tn clusters mimic carbohydrate structures found on tumor cells. The T-cell epitope stimulates effective T-cell responses. AS15, a potent adjuvant liposomal formulation that contains CpG 7909, monophosphoryl lipid (MPL), and QS-21, increases the immune response against the Tn antigens. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Maitake mushroom extract

An extract of the edible mushroom Maitaki, Grifola frondosa, rich in glucan polysaccharides, with potential immunostimulating activity. Upon oral ingestion, Maitaki mushroom extract may promote dendritic cell (DC) maturation, increase interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production, and may enhance natural killer (NK) cell activity, thereby amplifying both innate and T cell-mediated immune responses against cancer cells. In addition, this extract may stimulate the production of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF) and promote hematopoiesis, and may improve the neutrophil count. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Makarol

(Other name for: diethylstilbestrol)

Maldex

(Other name for: maltodextrin)

Maldrin

(Other name for: maltodextrin)

malignant glioma tumor lysate-pulsed autologous dendritic cell vaccine

A cell-based cancer vaccine composed of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with lysates from malignant glioma cells with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, malignant glioma tumor lysate-pulsed autologous dendritic cell vaccine exposes the immune system to undefined malignant glioma tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), which may result in anti-tumoral cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and antibody responses against glioma cells and glioma cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

maltodextrin

An oligosaccharide derived from starch that is used as a food additive and as a carbohydrate supplement. As a supplement, maltodextrin is used to provide and sustain energy levels during endurance-oriented workouts or sports, to help build muscle mass and support weight gain. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

maltose

A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units linked through an alpha-1,4 glycosidic bond. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

mammaglobin-A DNA vaccine

A cancer vaccine containing a plasmid encoding the mammaglobin-A gene with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, mammaglobin-A DNA vaccine may induce both humoral and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) immune responses against tumor cells that express mammaglobin-A, which may result in decreased tumor growth. The 10 kiloDalton (kD) glycoprotein mammglobin-A is expressed in over 80% of human breast cancers. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

mangafodipir trisodium

The trisodium salt of mangafodipir with potential antioxidant and chemoprotective activities. Consisting of manganese (II) ions chelated to fodipir (dipyridoxyl diphosphate or DPDP), mangafodipir scavenges oxygen free radicals such as superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radical, potentially preventing oxygen free radical damage to macromolecules such as DNA and minimizing oxygen free radical-related chemotoxicity in normal tissues. However, this agent may potentiate the chemotherapy-induced generation of oxygen free radicals in tumor cells, resulting in the potentiation of chemotherapy-induced cytotoxicity; tumor cells, with higher levels of reactive oxygen species than normal cells, possess a lower threshold for oxygen free radical-mediated cytotoxicity. Mangafodipir is traditionally used as an imaging agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

mannitol

A naturally occurring alcohol found in fruits and vegetables and used as an osmotic diuretic. Mannitol is freely filtered by the glomerulus and poorly reabsorbed from the renal tubule, thereby causing an increase in osmolarity of the glomerular filtrate. An increase in osmolarity limits tubular reabsorption of water and inhibits the renal tubular reabsorption of sodium, chloride, and other solutes, thereby promoting diuresis. In addition, mannitol elevates blood plasma osmolarity, resulting in enhanced flow of water from tissues into interstitial fluid and plasma. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Manuka honey

A monofloral honey with potential wound repair and antibacterial activities. Manuka honey is produced by bees fed on the flowers of the New Zealand Manuka bush (Leptospermum scoparium). Manuka honey contains a significant higher concentration of the 1,2-dicarbonyl compound methylglyoxal, which may account for its antibacterial activity; this agent may release small amounts of hydrogen peroxide which may also contribute to its antibacterial activity. Manuka honey has been reported to stimulate the formation of new blood capillaries and the growth of fibroblasts and epithelial cells when applied topically to wounds. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

mapatumumab

A fully human agonistic monoclonal antibody to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor-1 (TRAIL-R1) with apoptosis promoting and potential antitumor activities. TRAIL-R1 is a cell surface receptor expressed on many malignant cell types. Mapatumumab selectively binds to and activates the TRAIL cell receptor, thereby inducing apoptosis and reducing tumor growth. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

maraviroc

A C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) antagonist with activity against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Maraviroc inhibits HIV-1 entry via CCR5 coreceptor interaction. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Marcaine

(Other name for: bupivacaine hydrochloride)

marcellomycin

An antineoplastic oligosaccharide anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic isolated from the bacterium Actinosporangium bohemicum. Marcellomycin intercalates into DNA and induces DNA crosslinks, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and repair and RNA and protein synthesis. This agent also induces differentiation in HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells by interfering with glycoprotein synthesis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

margetuximab

A Fc-domain optimized IgG monoclonal antibody directed against the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. After binding to HER2 on the tumor cell surface, margetuximab may induce an antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) against tumor cells overexpressing HER2. HER2, a tyrosine kinase receptor, is overexpressed by many cancer cell types. Compared to other anti-HER2 monoclonal antibodies, the Fc domain of MGAH22 is optimized with increased binding to the activating Fcgamma receptor IIIA (CD16A), expressed on cells such as natural killer (NK) cells and macrophages, thereby mediating an enhanced ADCC; the Fc domain also shows decreased binding to the inhibitory Fcgamma receptor IIB (CD32B). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

marijuana

Any part of, or extract from, the female hemp plant Cannabis sativa. Marijuana contains cannabinoids, substances with hallucinogenic, psychoactive, and addictive properties. This agent has potential use for treating cancer pain and cachexia. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

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