Disease & Drug Info

Drug Dictionary

DAB389 epidermal growth factor

A recombinant fusion protein composed of the diphtheria toxin with the receptor-binding domain replaced by human epidermal growth factor (EGF). When administered, EGF binds to the endothelial cell growth factor receptor, EGFR, which is upregulated in many solid tumors. After binding to the EGF receptor, the agent is internalized by the cell, where the diphtheria toxin moiety exerts its cytotoxic effect, inhibiting protein synthesis through ADP-ribosylation of elongation factor 2. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

dabigatran etexilate mesylate

An orally available mesylate salt form of the etexilate prodrug of dabigatran, a benzimidazole and direct thrombin inhibitor with anticoagulant activity. Upon administration, dabigatran etexilate is hydrolyzed by esterases and is converted into dabigatran. Dabigatran reversibly binds to and inhibits the activity of thrombin, a serine protease that converts fibrinogen into fibrin. This disrupts the coagulation cascade and inhibits the formation of blood clots. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

dabrafenib

An orally bioavailable inhibitor of B-raf (BRAF) protein with potential antineoplastic activity. Dabrafenib selectively binds to and inhibits the activity of B-raf, which may inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells which contain a mutated BRAF gene. B-raf belongs to the the raf/mil family of serine/threonine protein kinases and plays a role in regulating the MAP kinase/ERKs signaling pathway, which may be constitutively activated due to BRAF gene mutations. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

dacarbazine

A triazene derivative with antineoplastic activity. Dacarbazine alkylates and cross-links DNA during all phases of the cell cycle, resulting in disruption of DNA function, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

dacetuzumab

A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the CD40 receptor with potential antineoplastic activity. Dacetuzumab specifically binds to and inhibits the CD40 receptor, thereby inducing apoptosis and inhibiting cellular proliferation via antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in cells that overexpress this receptor. The CD40 receptor, a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor super-family, is highly expressed on most B lineage hematologic malignancies including multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin's disease and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

DACH polymer platinate AP5346

A low molecular weight polymer-conjugated platinum complex with potential antineoplastic activity. This polymer drug delivery system consists of cytotoxic diaminocyclohexane (DACH)-platinum (Pt) coupled to a water-soluble biocompatible hydroxypropylmethacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer via a pH sensitive linker. Due to decreased pH in tumor sites, the linker is cleaved and the chelated active moiety DACH-Pt is released in tumor cells. DACH-Pt alkylates macromolecules and causes both inter- and intra-strand platinum-DNA crosslinks, which impede DNA replication and transcription, resulting in cell-cycle independent cytotoxicity. The HPMA-based drug delivery system increases the concentration and prolongs the half-life of DACH-Pt in tumor sites, while minimizing adverse effects on normal tissues. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

DACH-platin micelle NC-4016

Polymeric micellar nanoparticles containing diaminocyclohexane platinum (DACH-platin or DACH-Pt) with potential antineoplastic activity. DACH-platin micelle NC-4016 is prepared through the formation of a polymer-metal complex between DACH-platin and the polyethylene glycol-poly (glutamic acid) block copolymer, PEG-P(Glu). DACH-platin, an active metabolite of the platinum-based antineoplastic agent oxaliplatin, is highly hydrophobic and toxic when administered systemically. The use of polymeric micelles incorporating DACH-platin may both increase cell permeability and enhance the retention of the agent. This allows an extended half-life in the blood circulation and a selective and high accumulation of DACH-platin at tumor sites. This results in increased anticancer efficacy while reducing side effects due to DACH-platin toxicity. Upon intravenous administration and internalization by tumor cells, DACH-platin binds to and causes both inter- and intra-strand cross-links in DNA, forming platinum adducts and triggering tumor cell apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

daclatasvir

An orally available inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) non-structural protein 5A (NS5A) replication complex, with potential activity against HCV. Although the exact mechanism of action of daclatasvir has yet to be fully determined, this agent, upon oral administration and after intracellular uptake, appears to bind to domain I of the NS5A protein. This inhibits the activity of the NS5A protein and results in the disruption of the viral RNA replication complex, blockage of viral HCV RNA production, and inhibition of viral replication. NS5A, a zinc-binding and proline-rich hydrophilic phosphoprotein, plays a crucial role in HCV RNA replication. HCV is a small, enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

daclizumab

A recombinant monoclonal antibody interleukin-2 receptor antagonist. Daclizumab binds specifically to the alpha subunit of the human interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor expressed on the surface of activated lymphocytes in vivo, thereby inhibiting IL-2 binding and IL-2-mediated lymphocyte activation, a critical cellular immune response pathway. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Dacogen

(Other name for: decitabine)

dacomitinib

An orally bioavailable, highly selective, second-generation small-molecule inhibitor of the pan-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of tyrosine kinases (ErbB family) with potential antineoplastic activity. Dacomitinib specifically and irreversibly binds to and inhibits human EGFR subtypes, resulting in inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in EGFR-expressing tumor cells. EGFRs play major roles in tumor cell proliferation and tumor vascularization, and are often overexpressed or mutated in various tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

dactinomycin

A chromopeptide antineoplastic antibiotic isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces parvulus. Dactinomycin intercalates between adjacent guanine-cytosine base pairs, blocking the transcription of DNA by RNA polymerase; it also causes single-strand DNA breaks, possibly via a free-radical intermediate or an interaction with topoisomerase II. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Dakin's solution

A highly diluted solution of sodium hypochlorite (0.5% w/v) with topical anti-infective activity. Dakin's solution is used as an antiseptic to clean infected topical wounds. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

dalantercept

A soluble fusion protein containing the extracellular domain of activin receptor-like kinase-1 (ALK1) fused to a human Fc domain (ALK1-Fc fusion protein), with potential antiangiogenic and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, dalantercept binds to various ALK1 ligands, preventing activation of tumor cell ALK1 receptors and so inhibiting the ALK1 signaling pathway; growth factor-induced angiogenesis is thus inhibited, which may result in the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and tumor cell death. ALK1 is a type I cell surfacereceptor with serine/threonine kinase activity thatmediates signaling by members of the transforminggrowth factor-beta (TGFbeta) superfamily and plays a key role in angiogenesis; ligands for this receptor include TGFbeta1 and TGFbeta2. The Fc moiety of this fusion protein mediates clearance of ligand-fusion protein complexes by the reticuloendothelial system (RES). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Daliresp

(Other name for: roflumilast)

dalotuzumab

A recombinant monoclonal antibody directed against the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) with potential antineoplastic activity. Dalotuzumab binds to membrane-bound IGF1R, preventing binding of the ligand IGF1 and the subsequent triggering of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway; inhibition of this survival signaling pathway may result in the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. The activation of IGF1R, a tyrosine kinase and a member of the insulin receptor family, stimulates cell proliferation, enables oncogenic transformation, and suppresses apoptosis; IGF1R signaling has been highly implicated in tumorigenesis and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

dalteparin

A low molecular weight, synthetic heparin. As an anticoagulant/antithrombotic agent, dalteparin binds to antithrombin and enhances the inhibition of Factor Xa. Compared to unfractionated heparins, the use of dalteparin is associated with lower incidences of osteoporosis and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

danazol

A synthetic androgen derived from ethinyl testosterone. Danazol indirectly reduces estrogen production by decreasing pituitary secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, and binds to sex hormone receptors in target tissues, thereby exhibiting antiestrogenic, anabolic and weakly androgenic effects. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

daniquidone

A water-insoluble heterocyclic amide with potential antineoplastic activity. Daniquidone inhibits topoisomerases I and II, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and repair, and RNA and protein synthesis. The acetylated form of daniquidone is highly toxic and is capable of inducing unscheduled DNA synthesis; rapid acetylators are more likely to experience toxicity with this agent. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Danocrine

(Other name for: danazol)

danusertib

A small-molecule 3-aminopyrazole derivative with potential antineoplastic activity. Dalotuzumab binds to and inhibits the Aurora kinases, which may result in cell growth arrest and apoptosis in tumor cells in which Aurora kinases are overexpressed. This agent may preferentially bind to and inhibit Aurora B kinase. Aurora kinases, a family of serine-threonine kinases, are important regulators of cellular proliferation and division. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

daporinad

A small molecule with potential antineoplastic and antiangiogenic activities. Daporinad binds to and inhibits nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NMPRTase), inhibiting the biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) from niacinamide (vitamin B3), which may deplete energy reserves in metabolically active tumor cells and induce tumor cell apoptosis. In addition, this agent may inhibit tumor cell prioduction of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), resulting in the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. The coenzyme NAD+ plays an essential role in cellular redox reactions, including the redox reaction linking the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

dapsone gel, 5%

A gel containing 5% (w/w) dapsone, a synthetic derivative of diamino-sulfone with anti-infective properties. A structural analog of p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), dapsone inhibits dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS), an enzyme important in folate synthesis, resulting in a depletion of the folate pool and a reduction in the amount of thymidylate available for DNA synthesis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Daptacel

(Other name for: diphtheria toxoid/tetanus toxoid/acellular pertussis vaccine adsorbed)

daptomycin

A semi-synthetic cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic isolated form the bacterium Streptomyces roseosporus with broad-spectrum anitbiotic activity against Gram-positive bacteria. Daptomycin has a distinct mechanism of action, in which it binds to bacterial membrane and causes rapid depolarization of the cell membrane due to calcium-dependant potassium efflux; the loss of membrane potential leads to inhibition of DNA, RNA and protein synthesis, resulting in bacterial cell death. This agent does not penetrate the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Daraprim

(Other name for: pyrimethamine)

daratumumab

A fully human monoclonal antibody directed against the cell surface glycoprotein CD-38 with potential antineoplastic activity. The binding of daratumumab to natural killer (NK) cells mimics the normal CD38-CD31 interaction on the NK cell surface. CD38 is also present on multiple myeloma (MM) cells and plasma leukemia cells; this agent may preferentially bind these cells, triggering antitumoral antibody-dependentcellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). CD38, a cell surface glycoprotein, is present on various immune cells and has been shown to regulate the cytotoxic response of activated NK cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

darbepoetin alfa

A recombinant analog of the endogenous cytokine erythropoietin, an erythropoiesis-stimulating protein. Due to the addition of two carbohydrate chains, darbepoetin alfa exhibits a three-fold greater half-life than does erythropoietin. Similar to erythropoietin, darbopoietin alfa binds to and activates epoetin receptors, thereby inducing the differentiation and maturation of erythrocyte progenitors, stimulating endothelial cell proliferation, and stimulating B-cell proliferation and immunoglobulin production. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

darinaparsin

A small-molecule organic arsenical with potential antineoplastic activity. Although the exact mechanism of action is unclear, darinaparsin, a highly toxic metabolic intermediate of inorganic arsenicals (iAs) that occurs in vivo, appears to generate volatile cytotoxic arsenic compounds when glutathione (GSH) concentrations are low. The arsenic compounds generated from darinaparsin disrupt mitochondrial bioenergetics, producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inducing ROS-mediated tumor cell apoptosis; in addition, this agent or its byproducts may initiate cell death by interrupting the G2/M phase of the cell cycle and may exhibit antiangiogenic effects. Compared to inorganic arsenic compounds such as arsenic trioxide (As2O3), darinaparsin appears to exhibit a wide therapeutic window. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Darzalex

(Other name for: daratumumab)

dasabuvir

A non-nucleoside inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) non-structural protein 5B (NS5B), an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, with potential activity against HCV. Upon administration and after intracellular uptake, dasabuvir binds HCV NS5B and blocks viral RNA synthesis and replication. The HCV NS5B protein is essential for the replication of the HCV RNA genome. HCV is a small, enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family; HCV infection is associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

dasatinib

An orally bioavailable synthetic small molecule-inhibitor of SRC-family protein-tyrosine kinases. Dasatinib binds to and inhibits the growth-promoting activities of these kinases. Apparently because of its less stringent binding affinity for the BCR-ABL kinase, dasatinib has been shown to overcome the resistance to imatinib of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells harboring BCR-ABL kinase domain point mutations. SRC-family protein-tyrosine kinases interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways; tumorigenic forms can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by way of virally-encoded kinase genes. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

daunorubicin hydrochloride

The hydrochloride salt of an anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic with therapeutic effects similar to those of doxorubicin. Daunorubicin exhibits cytotoxic activity through topoisomerase-mediated interaction with DNA, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and repair and RNA and protein synthesis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

DaunoXome

(Other name for: liposomal daunorubicin citrate)

DAVANAT

(Other name for: galactomannan derivative)

DC-cholesterol liposome

A cationic cholesterol derivative mixed with dimethylaminoethane-carbamoyl and sonicated to form small unilamellar vesicles that can complex with DNA, DNA/protein complexes and other drug complexes and mediates the delivery into the cytosol from the endosome compartment. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

DC-OVA vaccine

An autologous, multivalent dendritic cell vaccine targeting ovarian cancer with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. DC-OVA vaccine is produced in vitro by pulsing autologous dendritic cells with killed autologous primary ovarian tumors as a source of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs); the pulsed DCs are then matured using various cytokines. Upon administration, DC-OVA vaccine may stimulate a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against ovarian cancer TAA-expressing ovarian cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

DCR ligand-bearing liposome-encapsulated melanoma antigens vaccine

A cancer cell-based vaccine containing liposome encapsulated melanoma antigens and an immunomodulatory factor, attached, via a metal chelator, to a dendritic cell receptor (DCR) ligand-containing a metal-affinity tag, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration of DCR ligand-bearing liposome-encapsulated melanoma antigens vaccine, the DCR ligand moiety of this vaccine targets receptors on dendritic cells (DCs), thereby presenting the antigens to DCs which may, in turn, stimulate the DCs and may activate the immune system to mount a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against melanoma cancer cell associated antigens. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

D-cycloserine

An analogue of the amino acid D-alanine with broad-spectrum antibiotic and glycinergic activities. D-cycloserine interferes with bacterial cell wall synthesis by competitively inhibiting two enzymes, L-alanine racemase and D-alanine:D-alanine ligase, thereby impairing peptidoglycan formation necessary for bacterial cell wall synthesis. This agent may be bactericidal or bacteriostatic, depending on its concentration at the infection site and the susceptibility of the organism. In addition, D-cycloserine is an excitatory amino acid and partial agonist at the glycine binding site of the NMDA receptor in the central nervous system (CNS); binding to the central NMDA receptor may result in amelioration of neuropathic pain. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

DDAVP

(Other name for: desmopressin acetate)

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