Disease & Drug Info

Drug Dictionary

B43-PAP immunotoxin

A mouse-derived anti-human CD19 monoclonal antibody linked to pokeweed (Phytolacca americana) antiviral protein (PAP) with antileukemic activity. The monoclonal antibody portion specifically binds to the CD19 antigen, a cell surface molecule normally expressed only by B lymphocytes and follicular dendritic cells and over-expressed in B-lineage lymphocytic leukemia cells. Following internalization, PAP, a plant hemitoxin and a ribosome-inactivating protein, is cleaved from the immunoconjugate and released into the cytoplasm where it enzymatically removes a single adenine base from a conserved, surface exposed loop sequence of rRNA leading to inhibition of protein synthesis and cell growth, but not necessarily cell death. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

B7-DC cross-linking antibody rHIgM12B7

A recombinant form of the monoclonal IgM antibody M12 isolated from a Waldenstrom macroglobulinaemia patient (rHIgM12) with potential immunomodulating activity. B7-DC cross-linking antibody rHIgM12B7 binds and crosslinks the B7 co-stimulatory family member B7-DC (PD-L2) on dendritic cells (DCs), antigen presenting cells (APCs) that play a crucial role in the human immune response. This results in enhanced activation of DCs; enhanced antigen-presenting activity; and increased production of immunomodulatory cytokines (especially interleukin 12); and may potentiate a specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against Waldenstrom macroglobulinaemia B cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

bacitracin

A complex of cyclic polypeptide antibiotics, mainly bacitracin A, produced by spore-forming organisms belonging to the licheniformin group of the Bacillus subtilis with antibacterial activity. Bacitracin binds to C55-isoprenyl pyrophosphate, a biphosphate lipid transport molecule that carries the building blocks of the peptidoglycan bacterial cell wall. The binding interferes with the enzymatic dephosphorylation of the C55-isoprenyl pyrophosphate and prevents peptidoglycan synthesis, thereby inhibiting bacterial cell growth. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

baclofen

A synthetic chlorophenyl-butanoic acid derivative with muscle relaxant activity. Baclofen acts as a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist specific for GABA-B receptors in the central nervous system (CNS). At spinal and supraspinal sites, this agent reduces excitatory transmission. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

baclofen/amitriptyline/ketamine gel

A topical preparation of baclofen, amitriptyline, and ketamine compounded in a penetration-enhancing polaxamer-lecithin organogel (PLO) with potential antineuralgic activity. The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analogue baclofen appears to activate the inhibitory GABA(B) receptor, a G protein-coupled receptor, which may result in hyperpolarization of the neuronal cell membrane and inhibition of neurotransmitter release. Amitriptyline likely produces antineuralgic effects via modulation of multiple subtypes of glutamate (Glu) receptors, independent of its antidepressant actions. Ketamine displays complex pharmacologic actions including biogenic amine uptake inhibition, interaction with opioid receptors, and inhibition of N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Stimulation of GABA(B) receptor activity, modulation of Glu receptor activity, and inhibition of NMDA receptor activity may be of benefit in managing neuropathic pain. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

bacteriophage phi X 174

A bacteriophage that infects E. coli. Its genome is a circular DNA of 5386 bases. Check for active clinical trials using this agent.

Bactrim

(Other name for: trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole)

bafetinib

An orally bioavailable 2-phenylaminopyrimidine derivative with potential antineoplastic activity. Bafetinib specifically binds to and inhibits the Bcr/Abl fusion protein tyrosine kinase, an abnormal enzyme produced by Philadelphia chromosomal translocation associated with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). This agent also inhibits the Src-family member Lyn tyrosine kinase, upregulated in imatinib-resistant CML cells and in a variety of solid cancer cell types. The inhibitory effect of bafetinib on these specific tyrosine kinases may decrease cellular proliferation and induce apoptosis in tumor cells that overexpress these kinases. CML patients may be refractory to imatinib, which sometimes results from point mutations occurring in the kinase domain of the Bcr/Abl fusion product. Due to its dual inhibitory activity, the use of bafetinib has been shown to overcome this particular drug resistance. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Bag Balm

(Other name for: 8-hydroxyquinoline sulfate ointment)

balanced crystalloid solution

A multiple electrolyte, isotonic, crystalloid solution for intravenous infusion containing sodium chloride, sodium gluconate, sodium acetate, potassium chloride and magnesium chloride, which can restore electrolyte balance, normalize pH, and provide hydration. Upon intravenous administration, the balanced crystalloid solution will replace lost body fluids and electrolytes thereby providing hydration, normalizing electrolyte concentrations and regulating acid-base balance. Check for active clinical trials using this agent.

Balziva

(Other name for: ethinyl estradiol/norethindrone)

banoxantrone

A bioreductive, alkylaminoanthraquinone prodrug with antineoplastic activity. Under hypoxic conditions, often seen in solid tumors, banoxantrone (AQ4N) is converted and activated by cytochrome P450 enzymes, which are upregulated in certain tumors, to the cytotoxic DNA-binding agent AQ4. Banoxantrone intercalates into and crosslinks DNA, and inhibits topoisomerase II. This results in an inhibition of DNA replication and repair in tumor cells. Combined with conventional therapeutic agents, both oxygenic and hypoxic regions of tumors can be targeted. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Baraclude

(Other name for: entecavir)

barasertib

An orally bioavailable, small-molecule, dihydrogen phosphate prodrug of the pyrazoloquinazoline Aurora kinase inhibitor AZD1152hydroxyquinazoline pyrazol anilide (AZD1152-HQPA) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration and rapid conversion from the prodrug form in plasma, barasertib specifically binds to and inhibits Aurora kinase B, which results in the disruption of spindle checkpoint functions and chromosome alignment and, so, the disruption of chromosome segregation and cytokinesis. Consequently, cell division and cell proliferation are inhibited and apoptosis is induced in Aurora kinase B-overexpressing tumor cells. Aurora kinase B, a serine/threonine protein kinase that functions in the attachment of the mitotic spindle to the centromere, is overexpressed in a wide variety of cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

bardoxolone

A synthetic triterpenoid compound with potential antineoplastic and anti-inflammatory activities. Bardoxolone blocks the synthesis of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2), two enzymes involved in inflammation and carcinogenesis. This agent also inhibits the interleukin-1 (IL-1)-induced expression of the pro-inflammatory proteins matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) and the expression of Bcl-3; Bcl-3 is an IL-1-responsive gene that preferentially contributes to MMP-1 gene expression. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

barium sulfate

The sulfate salt of barium, an alkaline, divalent metal. Barium sulfate is quite insoluble in water, and is used as a radiopaque agent to diagnose gastrointestinal medical conditions. Barium sulfate is taken by mouth or given rectally. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Barseb HC

(Other name for: therapeutic hydrocortisone)

Basen

(Other name for: voglibose)

basiliximab

A recombinant, chimeric, human-murine monoclonal antibody directed against the alpha subunit of the interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R alpha) with immunosuppressant activity. Basiliximab selectively binds to and blocks IL-2R alpha, expressed on the surface of activated T-lymphocytes, thereby preventing interleukin-2 binding and inhibiting the interleukin-2-mediated activation of lymphocytes. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

batabulin sodium

A synthetic pentafluorophenylsulfonamide with potential antineoplastic activity. Batabulin sodium covalently binds to and selectively modifies the beta 1, beta 2, beta 3, and beta 4 isotypes of beta tubulin at a conserved cysteine residue, resulting in disruption of microtubule polymerization, collapse of the cytoskeleton, an increase in chromosomal ploidy, cell cycle arrest, and tumor cell apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

bavituximab

An IgG3 monoclonal antibody directed against anionic phospholipids with potential antineoplastic activity. Chimeric anti-phosphotidylserine monoclonal antibody binds to anionic phospholipids in a beta 2-glycoprotein I-dependent manner, inhibiting tumor growth by stimulating antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) to tumor vessels. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

BAY 56-3722

A water-soluble camptothecin derivative conjugated to a carbohydrate moiety exhibiting antineoplastic activity. BAY 56-3722 stabilizes the topoisomerase I-DNA covalent complex and forms an enzyme-drug-DNA ternary complex. As a consequence of the formation of this complex, both the initial cleavage reaction and religation steps are inhibited and subsequent collision of the replication fork with the cleaved strand of DNA results in inhibition of DNA replication, double strand DNA breakage and triggering of apoptosis. The peptide carbohydrate moiety of this agent stabilizes the lactone form of camptothecin in blood. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

BayGam

(Other name for: therapeutic immune globulin)

bazedoxifene

An indole derivative and third-generation selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, bazedoxifene specifically binds to estrogen receptors in responsive tissues, including liver, bone, breast, and endometrium. The resulting ligand-receptor complex is translocated to the nucleus where, depending on the tissue type, it either promotes or suppresses the transcription of estrogen-regulated genes. Bazedoxifene acts as an estrogen antagonist in uterine and breast tissue, thereby blocking the proliferative effects of estrogen-binding to ER-positive cells in these tissues. Bazedoxifene functions as an estrogen agonist in lipid metabolism, thereby decreasing total and LDL cholesterol levels. In bone, it decreases bone resorption and bone turnover and increases bone mineral density. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

BC-819 plasmid/polyethylenimine complex

A plasmid DNA encoding for the A fragment of Diphtheria Toxin (DTA) under the control of the H19 gene promoter (BC-819 or DTA-H19) and mixed with the transfectant polyethylenimine (PEI), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, the PEI moiety enhances the entry of the agent into rapidly dividing cells. Upon cell entry, activation of the H19 gene promoter-containing plasmids and DTA expression are limited to tumor cells, as high levels of H19 expression are only found in tumor cells. DTA disrupts protein synthesis. Tumor-cell selective expression of this toxin leads to the selective destruction of the tumor while sparing healthy, normal cells. H19, an oncofetal, regulatory RNA, is overexpressed in certain cancer cells while its expression in normal cells is minimal or absent; it plays a key role in cancer progression, angiogenesis and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

BCG solution

A solution containing an attenuated, live culture preparation of theBacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) strain of Mycobacterium bovis with potential immunostimulating activity. Although the precise mechanism of action is unknown, upon intravesical administration, attenuated, live BCG bacteria in the solution come into direct contact with the bladder wall, inciting an antitumor granulomatous inflammatory reaction. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

BCG vaccine

A vaccine containing bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis, with non-specific immunoadjuvant and immunotherapeutic activities. Although the mechanism of its anti-tumor activity is unclear, immunization with BCG vaccine likely activates a Th1 cytokine response that includes the induction of interferon. Vaccination with BCG vaccine may be immunoprotective against infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Bcl-2 inhibitor BCL201

A selective inhibitor of the anti-apoptotic protein B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), with potential pro-apoptotic and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, Bcl-2 inhibitor BCL201 binds to and inhibits the activity of Bcl-2. This restores apoptotic processes in tumor cells. Bcl-2 protein is overexpressed in many cancers and plays an important role in the negative regulation of apoptosis; its expression is associated with increased drug resistance and tumor cell survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

BCMA-specific CAR-expressing T lymphocytes

A preparation of autologous peripheral blood T-lymphocytes (PBTL) that have been genetically modified to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for the B cell maturation antigen (BCMA), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, BCMA-specific CAR-expressing T-lymphocytes specifically recognize and kill BCMA-expressing tumor cells. BCMA, a tumor specific antigen and a receptor for both a proliferation-inducing ligand and B-cell activating factor, is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily and plays a key role in plasma survival; it is found on the surfaces of plasma cells and overexpressed on malignant plasma cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

bcr-abl (b2a2)-derived peptide vaccine

A peptide vaccine consisting of the bcr-abl b2a2 fusion oncoprotein, frequently expressed in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), with potential antineoplastic activity. Vaccination with the bcr-abl (b2a2)-derived peptide vaccine may stimulate the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells that express the bcr-abl b2a2 fusion protein. Fusion genes in CML typically result from the fusion of either BCR exon b2 or BCR exon b3 to ABL exon a2, a 'b3a2' or a 'b2a2' fusion. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

bcr-abl (b3a2)-derived peptide vaccine

A peptide vaccine consisting of the bcr-abl b3a2 fusion oncoprotein, frequently expressed in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), with potential antineoplastic activity. Vaccination with the bcr-abl (b3a2)-derived peptide vaccine may stimulate the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells that express the bcr-abl b3a2 fusion protein. Fusion genes in CML typically result from the fusion of either BCR exon b2 or BCR exon b3 to ABL exon a2, a 'b3a2' or a 'b2a2' fusion. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

bcr-abl p210-b3a2 breakpoint-derived multipeptide vaccine

A multipeptide vaccine consisting of five peptides derived from the bcr-abl p210-b3a2 breakpoint fusion protein with potential antineoplastic activity. Vaccination with bcr-abl p210-b3a2 breakpoint-derived multipeptide vaccine may stimulate the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells that express the bcr-abl p210-b3a2 breakpoint fusion protein. In chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), fusion genes typically result from the fusion of either bcr exon b2 or exon b3 to abl exon a2, resulting in either a b3a2 or a b2a2 gene fusion product. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

bcr-abl peptide vaccine

A multivalent antineoplastic vaccine comprised of the bcr-abl oncogene breakpoint fusion peptide that elicits a bcr-abl specific T-cell immune response. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

BEACOPP regimen

A chemotherapy regimen consisting of bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin), cyclophosphamide, vincristine (Oncovin), procarbazine and prednisone, used for the treatment of advanced-stage Hodgkin lymphoma. (NCI Thesaurus)

Bead Block Compressible Microspheres

(Other name for: PVA microporous hydrospheres)

becatecarin

A synthetic diethylaminoethyl analogue of the indolocarbazole glycoside antineoplastic antibiotic rebeccamycin. Becatecarin intercalates into DNA and stabilizes the DNA-topoisomerase I complex, thereby interfering with the topoisomerase I-catalyzed DNA breakage-reunion reaction and initiating DNA cleavage and apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Becenum

(Other name for: carmustine)

beclomethasone dipropionate

The dipropionate salt of a synthetic glucocorticoid with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating properties. After cell surface receptor attachment and cell entry, beclomethasone enters the nucleus where it binds to and activates specific nuclear receptors, resulting in an altered gene expression and inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine production. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Beclovent

(Other name for: beclomethasone dipropionate)

Beconase

(Other name for: beclomethasone dipropionate)

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